Originating in the West, the belief on social, political as well as economic equality of sexes has been evident in the whole world and has already manifested through various research and explorations conducted by several institutions. Throughout history, women have been denied the chance to freely exploit their capabilities mostly in the economic sector in which social demarcations have been established with men being more employable than women. Gender has set specifications in employment terms within the private sectors instead of career specializations. Some tasks such as managerial and technical jobs get regarded as masculine leading to less or no considerations of the female applicants who qualify for the same. Feminism has been a key issue in the selection of employees leading to adverse negative effects on female workers around the globe. This report will describe such effects together with coming up with a suitable way of curbing them and ensuring that the working environment is fair and satisfactory to each employee hence increasing productivity and efficiency.
This study will seek to shine a light on the extrapolation of the effect of gender differences on the women employed in private sector in Kurd city in Iraq's Kurdistan. The study will seek to find out how are women affected by the gender differences in their workplaces, focus on labor rights, working conditions, remunerations, and promotions. Finally, the study will also seek to resolve if women are granted opportunities such as promotion, education and allocated leave such as health, maternity, and seminars.
The Research ObjectivesThe purpose of the study is to determine the position of women in the private sector employment and how their rights get treated. The study will seek to establish how the private sector adopts the changes implemented by the government and how they have made changes to suit the roles of women in their work setup.
The Significance of the Study
Production within a firm gets determined by the efficiency of the employees, their ability to abide by the terms of the company as well as adopt the best norms in working towards achieving the set goals of the firm. It is not in any way related to the gender of the employee; instead, the competence in performance. This research will, therefore, enlighten organizational management systems upon the need not to consider gender but rather qualifications and duty congruence while employing as well as dedicating tasks to employees.
Iraq nation has undergone lots of changes since the end of the Gulf war with the change of government to the opening of democratic and more lenient government that has paved the way for new rules and regulation governing the labor relations in the country. The state of Kurd, on the other hand, has benefited from the post-war changes and has moved forward to legislate rules that support gender equality and safeguards the rights of the weaker sex against forms of discrimination due to sex. These regulations have created a more secure environment for the women to work and live in harmony in the society hence improving their working conditions, freedom and expectations as compared to the pre-war Iraq, whereby the women rights got infringed and limited. However, the post-war changes and the improvement of the legislation that allows more rights and privilege for the women in Kurd has been formulated and partly implemented, but this freedom is not western-like equivalent and men in the society are still considered dominant.
The change implemented does not grant women complete sovereignty, since their independence should not exceed the constraints and limits set by the Islamic law. The limitations include roles the women play in the workplace, the dressing codes and their work relations, whereby they play a limited role as compared to their male counterpart hence limiting their scope. In the City of Erbil, there is no significant difference for the women working in the private sector, whereby they operate under the set of rules and expectations of their Islamic male employees. The private sector forms a large pool of employer in the city. However, there is a significant gender disparity whereby more men get jobs as compare to women. Secondly, the women get fewer privileges than men such as reduced salary and allowances, decreasing responsibilities and opportunities and fewer promotions in the job. This study will, therefore, focus on the effect of gender differences on the female employees in the Private sector in Erbil City in the state of Kurdistan in Iraq.
The regional government of Kurd has been on the forefront of formulating and implementing rules that raises the stakes for genders equality, granting women more opportunities, liberty and rights at the workplace. The regional government has also performed these rules in its offices and has coerced the employers to follow suit. However, the private employers are yet to affect these rules due to little supervision by the government and the policies of these organizations that do not align with the plea for the women rights.
Gender differentiation in Kurdistan state subscribes to the Islamic laws in handling gender; however, the extremist, on the other hand, has used their power and the lack of stable government to infringe the rights of the women working in the employment sectors. The restriction for the women freedom and aggression against the women freedom has increased in rate since the 2013 war and the fall of the government, however, there is an increase in number women rights movement and more women participating in political processes.
On the contrary, the region of Kurdi is famous for lenient laws and legislating more compatible laws that have made the women working condition more favorable to work in as compared to the rest of the regions in the rest of Iraq. However, the issues of violence, discrimination, and gender inequality have persisted in the region where religious laws are paramount over the government instituted laws. The gender violence in the area remain high, with limited access to the socioeconomic life remain limited however the government is playing a major role, in ensuring that there is the observance of the gender equality. The government is pushing for its Independence from Iraq and wants to make the women gender roles its landmark whereby the women representation in the employment sector will increase stand their rights will be upheld.
Gender equality In Kurdistan is law, whereby there are fewer women in the employment sector with only a rate of 11%, and in the private sector, the price of employed women stands at 1%. In the Erbil city, the capital of Kurdi, the women include the more significant number of shoppers and restaurant customers however in the employment sector they represent a minimal amount. The women in the city rarely take part in the economic activity in that you can never find a female shop attendant in the town. The rate of employment for women who are at their current industrial age remains at one woman in every 100 who get employed in the private sector, and only 11% of the women get used in the public sector.
According to the study by Al Suleiman, women are denied enough opportunities in the private sector due to the harsh religious laws that deny them the liberty of taking part in economic activities. Most of the private areas has been a no-go zone for women, and if the women take part in these companies, they are given a minimal role to play with little remuneration and privileges to accompany the roe. According to the study carried out by the UNHCHR (2014), the women in the private employment sector will get hired due to blood relations with the employer's such siblings or kin however they yield little bargaining power. The female employees get denied the liberty of taking part in any form of association or negotiations for their rights at the working place let alone the freedom of enjoying better wages. The working conditions for the women in the private sector are diminishing and encourage less development for the female employees.
Different individuals within the surrounding area and companies will assist in carrying out this project. Individual-based analysis can be carried out during the investigations. Junior staff, as well as the managers, will be involved. Members of the board of several companies as well will be involved more so the subordinates. Many responses are expected from the women in the least levels of employment since they are more likely to interact with the mentioned challenges in the society hence the subordinate staff will be liable to questioning. Age variations from 26 years and above will be analyzed on as well. The greatest in management as well will be subjected to elaborating their views in employing women can be maintained as well as the mode of influence they are subjected to during their excursion of duties. A random mode of selection based on age and ranks for the workers will get considered while the career analysis sheets will be used to select some highly ranked women in each firm to participate in the research.
The probability sampling methods will be reliable for this type of research. A multistage sampling method involving both simple and stratified methods will highly be relied on. Simple random sampling (SRS) is the most convenient for this type of research since most of the individuals involved are liable to be used (Nolan.et al. 2014). After identification of the number of participants required in the process as well as the duration of conducting the research, a suitable number of individuals will get selected from the four groups: subordinate staff, local people within the town together with the managerial level of workers. The group members will be assigned with several members in each of the five groups to collect data using the different methods discussed then analysis will be carried out later upon the completion of the process.
Stratified sampling is another method which will get used in this report. The five selected groups will comprise the strata then simple sampling conducted upon them to obtain the stratum from which the data will get sampled. This mode of segmentation can be more reliable since the heterogeneous population can get sectioned into homogeneous groups which in turn give the required information as expected (Turner, 2013). Their collection can be more precise than the estimated simple random sampling. Both methods of data sampling can be highly reliable during the research project to ensure more accuracy upon the collected data.
Data Collection Procedures
Most of the companies within the town will be involved in the process. The stratified sampling method will be more reliable in this process. After identific...
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