Paper Example on Contemporary View of Indian Hijras: From Royal Respect to Social Equality

Paper Type:  Article review
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  902 Words
Date:  2023-03-02

The Indian culture considers hijras as an incarnation between Lord Krishna, Lord Shiva, and lord Shani. Since they are believed to be bestowed with exceptional power, and their traditional role is to bring fertility and luck to the community by blessing newly married couples and babies (Refinery29).

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According to the videos, what is the contemporary view toward hijras?

The Indian royal courts held hijras in high regard, and sacred text in India described them in a bright sari and delicate jewelry. However, the current contemporary view of hijras is different from a traditional one. Although they are politically recognized, they are denied their rights, and they are viewed as a shame to their families. The community rejects them, and they are raped, harassed, and they barely get formal employment (NDTV).

According to the videos, how is identity represented?

Hijras began their lives as one gender, but later their identity is represented by physical transitions by becoming a transgender person. They transform to be neither a man nor a woman. Also, they dress sari as a badge of honor and victory to feel like a woman (Refinery29).


According to the video, how do the Muxes in Oaxaca, Mexico, define themselves and their gender?

Although the society views, Muxes as transgender, in Oaxaca, Muxes consider themselves as a third gender. They mostly take women's roles, but they highly embrace their Muxes identity, which defines them. Also, they do not want to make women spot, since women are women and men are men (Olita). Therefore, they prefer to work as Muxes for their rights to be respected.

According to the video, are Muxes accepted by the culture and family? Discuss.

The family and culture accept Muxes. Their family provides support by allowing them to be independent. In the last decade, people hated them because of wearing women's clothes, but nowadays they see them as ordinary people. The society has accepted them, and they usually interact with everyone. Also, Muxes are appreciated because they are believed to bring luck and blessing in households (Olita).


According to the video, how are Native American two-spirit people defined?

The Native Americans defined two-spirit as people (female or male) who combined activities of both female and male (Frameline). They were believed to be spiritually more gifted than the typical feminine female or masculine male.

According to the video, what is the basket and bow ceremony?

In the Great Basin Tribes, a basket and bow ritual is a ceremony where a young man at the age of puberty was given a choice like women to choose between the basket and bow. If the person takes a bow, it meant that throughout life, that person would carry out the role as a man, but if the boy selected the basket, he was to carry out the task as a two-spirit person (Frameline).

According to the video, what does raw and cooked signify?

The Zuni ideas of the raw and cooked were used to signify different distinctions in their world. For example, a person who is socialized as two-spirit and a person who is not (Frameline). Also, young people and inborn are considered raw, but after growth and religious initiation ceremonies, they become cooked. However, when they die, they become raw.

According to the video, what is sexuality among the two-spirit people?

The unique status of two-spirit people made Native Indians believe that they were neither women nor men, and thus, their sexuality was considered as third gender or transgender (Frameline). Instead of focusing on the homosexuality of these individuals, Native Indians focused more on their spiritual gifts.

According to the video, what is the Native American conception of sexuality and gender?

The Native American conception of gender and sexuality created an opportunity for women and men to assume the men and female role permanently. The woman who assumed a male responsibility would marry a woman, and a man who assumed a female responsibility would marry a man (Frameline).

According to the video, how is religion or the spiritual a part of the two-spirit tradition?

Native traditions valued and respected two-spirit people. Two-spirit people were believed to transcend between both the spiritual and physical world, and thus, they acted as a codeword (Frameline). They passed sacred knowledge and gift through one generation to next through chantey, hula, and different forms of wisdom (Hina).

According to the video, what is the contemporary view of two-spirit people and why?

The contemporary view of two-spirit people is the one that is not gendered. This is because the gender role is not sexual. A two-spirit individual has nothing to do with biology because it is more about how one functions in society (Indigenous Wellness Research Institute).

Works Cited

Frameline. "Two Spirit People" (2011). Retrieved from

Hina, K. The Meaning of Mahu. (2015). Retrieved from

Indigenous Wellness Research Institute. As They Are: Two-Spirit People in the Modern World. (2012). Retrieved from

NDTV. "India Matters: The Third Gender." (2013). Retrieved from

Olita, I. MUXES. (2017). Retrieved from

Refinery29. India's Transgender Community: The Hijra | Style Out There | Refinery29. (2014). Retrieved from

Cite this page

Paper Example on Contemporary View of Indian Hijras: From Royal Respect to Social Equality. (2023, Mar 02). Retrieved from

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