Cameron, I.D., Kurrle, S.E., Uy, C., Lockwood, K.A., Au, L., Schaafsma, F.G., 2011. Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Older Women after a Fracture: Rationale, Design, and Study of the Feasibility of a Randomized Controlled Study. BMC Geriatr. 11, 32. Retrieved from https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2318-11-32
In this paper, oral supplementation with high nutrients of protein is an intrusion that may assist older individuals with fractures to advance their recovery period in terms of mortality, hospital stay, and rehabilitation time. The study focused on 44 malnourished participants admitted to hospital after enduring severe fractures. In the sample, an intervention group comprising of 23 individuals who received a high protein supplement of their diet choice for forty days. Also, 21 people of a control group obtained an addition of high protein milk to their regular diet. The mean age of all the women participants was 85, and the hip fractured participants were only 29. The two groups showed there were no significant differences after the 40 days of study. The strength of this research required to enhance scientific understanding through an evaluation of how oral nutritional supplement relates to human nutrition. On the other hand, the study did not conclude the supplementation impact of diet due to the small number of participants in this type of patient. Also, incomplete observance with the consumption of the supplement led to ineffective outcome measures.
Kim, S.H., Lee, S.M., Jeung, H.C., Lee, I.J., Park, J.S., Song, M., Lee, D.K., Lee, S.-M., 2019. The Effect of Nutrition Intervention with Oral Nutritional Supplements on Pancreatic and Bile Duct Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy. Nutrients 11. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566877/
The article cites how chemotherapy causes malnutrition to pancreatic cancer patients and how to manage their nutrition. The sample population comprised 34 participates 15 of the patients received oral supplements, and 19 did not receive oral nutrition. After eight weeks, the Oral nutrition supplements (ONS) group fat mass augmented in their second or higher chemotherapy cycle. All body composition parameters, including skeletal muscle mass and body weight, improved significantly among the ONS patients in their first cycle. The non-ONS group decreased the fat mass, lost body weight, and emaciated muscle mass. It is evident that to manage malnutrition of pancreatic cancer patients, ONS is useful to improve their nutritional status through raising fat mass and ensuring their body composition is not affected during their first cycle of chemotherapy. Also, the results showed that ONS could improve fatigue symptoms. The strength of the study was sufficient as its aim of finding any nutritional intervention was successful. On the other hand, the weakness of the research was that no other dietary methods were deliberated, and the study was limited to a certified nutritionist to minimize biasness.
Saturni. L., Ferretti.G, and Bacchetti (2010). The Gluten-Free Diet: Safety and Nutritional Quality. Nutr. 38, S124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257612/
In this article, the study aimed to find the nutritional gluten-free cereals properties and their use to avert celiac subject dietary deficiencies. A Celiac Disease (CD) patient requires finding a method to compensate for the dietary mechanisms if they go for a Gluten-Free-Diet (GFD). Gluten-containing grains like wheat contain fibers and nutrients such as Vitamin B and Iron, which are significant for individual health. The diet evaluation of 47 adults in the USA depicted that 32 individuals took the suggested amount of fibers, iron, and calcium. The inadequate fiber consumption is possibly related to the many GF composition of foods made with refined flours and starches. The study showed that high dietary liquid consumption is a crucial aspect impacting the development of diseases such as obesity. Thus, nutritionist proposes that a strict gluten-free diet may be a risk factor for CD patients as it results in improper alimentary adoptions.
On the other hand, the study recommends CD patients to consume minor or pseudo-cereals such as sorghum, amaranth and to prepare balanced gluten-free products. Also, the research proves that the intake of alternative cereals such as wheat has been investigated and recommended to increase the calcium and protein absorption of CD patients. However, the study was not sure whether pseudo-cereals reduce malnutrition of CD patients.
Hileman, C. O., Overton, E. T., & McComsey, G. A. (2016). Vitamin D and bone loss in HIV. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 11(3), 277.
The article illustrates the advantages of vitamin D, particularly to individuals living with HIV AIDS. There is a developing acknowledgment that HIV and malnutrition interrelate in complex techniques that increase vulnerability and deteriorate the severity of each situation. Malnutrition decreases the capability of the body to battle this infection by cooperating with different immune parameters. It is enlightened that the insufficient dietary consumption and the antiretroviral has been associated with modifications of the vitamin D amounts in the body. Also, this study is significant as it illustrates the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in HIV and illustrates the existing connection between bone loss and vitamin D. Additionally, bone loss may occur from nutritional changes related to HIV infection such as malnutrition. Severe malnutrition in the context of HIV illness is due to the less consumption of 75% of projected energy and protein necessity for more than one month. Also, the author states that offering them antiretroviral treatment during the early phases to assist them to remain healthy. The micronutrient supplements aid the body function appropriately. Thus, this study denotes the micronutrient deficiencies affect individuals and raise the mortality death. Individuals should consume foods with nutrients and vitamin D to boost their immune and prevent malnutrition. Knowledge of substantial nutrition components and integrating them to improve quality of life and greater survival in HIV-infected patients.
Monteferrario, F., Borrione, E., Cum, D., Guarcello, M., Lanza, C., Pagliarin, P., ... & Valenti, M. PROOF FOR APPROVAL. http://www.ilditonellapiaga.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/ntm-2012.pdf
The article evaluates pressure ulcers in aging patients taking a nutritional supplement called W-care. Malnutrition results in an increased risk of pressure ulcers. Also, inadequate nutrient consumption and low body weigh relate to a non-healing wound. The biologic implication of decline in nutrition status and steady methodologies to enumerate malnutrition and reduced micronutrient stores as skin breakdown predictors remain controversial. The W-care supplement comprises vitamin B12, vitamin K1, vitamin B6, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, L-arginine, collagen type II, and omega 3. The study comprised eleven patients who suffered from pressure ulcers and were monitored at baseline from the seventh and fourteenth day. Moreover, pressure ulcer stage decreased, demonstrating positive progress in the wound bed and adjacent skin as well as to exudate decrease. All the eleven patients who contributed to this study had a decrease in the pressure ulcer size and escalation in nutritional maintenance. The implementation of a diet with micro and macronutrients improves quality of life, the healing process, minimize the length of stay and health care costs. The study aided in determining the positive impact of W-care on pressure ulcer therapeutic, although constant research should be performed to authenticate these benefits.
Malnutrition is one of the critical illness among hospitalized problems. Nutritional support is substantial in the avoidance of complications linked with the disease state. It can be described as a health situation where an imbalance or excess protein and other nutrients lead in measurable hostile impacts on the operation of the body hence compromising body composition.
The threat of malnutrition is amplified in elderly individuals and has revealed to have significant implications for recovery in a comprehensive range of state. Older individuals associated with fractures mostly belong to the vulnerable group as they face a decline in their alimentary condition due to hospitalization and surgery, which pose a higher risk. According to the findings of the older women admitted in the hospital after a fracture, oral nutrition supplement was proved effective in boosting their immune. Thus, ONS with high protein nutrients is a significant intrusion to aid older individuals with fractures to promote their recovery.
Patients enduring the multifaceted treatment for chemotherapy are exposed to great psychological anguish encouraging physical inactivity and fatigue. In line with cancer-associated metabolic modifications, patients are susceptible to skeletal muscle mass decrease that results in a functional deterioration, influences quality of life and therapeutic success. Similarly, it is evident that to manage malnutrition of pancreatic cancer patients, ONS is useful to improve their nutritional status through improving fat mass and ensuring their body composition is not affected during their first cycle of chemotherapy.
Patients who have the celiac disease who often change to a gluten-free diet depicts a more obesity risk and metabolic syndrome due to developed intestinal speculation. However, the theory has also concentrated on the low quality of nutrition in the administered gluten-free foods that may comprise saturated fats and refined sugars and have a higher glycemic index. In the study, outcomes nutritionist propose that a strict gluten-free diet may be a risk factor for CD patients as it results in improper alimentary adoptions. Thus celiac individuals should consume a balanced gluten-free diet to prevent heart problems associated with obesity.
Vitamin D deficiency is an acknowledged risk aspect for muscle wasting in malnourished individuals living with HIV. However, the standard treatment of malnourishment is consuming high energy foods comprising relatively modest vital amounts of micronutrients. HIV individuals with severe acute malnutrition are more vulnerable to excessive inflammation and infections. In the study, findings show that inadequate nutrition intake consumption links to the variations of vitamin D in the body. Thus, it is essential to consume foods with vitamin D with calcium to prevent malnutrition in infected people.
Adequate nutrition is significant for pressure ulcer prevention. Malnutrition can hinder healing when pressure ulcers have progressed. Appropriate treatment plans should be deployed for patients identified as being at threat of malnutrition to improve their nutritional condition. In the study, Monteferrario et al. (2015) showed that w-care is essential in treating pressure ulcers as they contain micro and macronutrients which enhance the quality of life, minimizing health care costs and period of stay in hospital. Therefore, pressure ulcer patients should consume foods with nutrients to improve their nutrition as inadequate nutrition affects the process of wound healing negatively.
In a nutshell, it is essential to manage malnutrition in evidence and timely-based way with an optimal diet and nutritional support such as ONS, W-care, and vitamin D for those patients at higher malnutrition risk. Thus, malnutrition responds positively to increased supplementation of high energy products.
Cameron, I.D., Kurrle, S.E., Uy, C., Lo...
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