Total quality management (TQM) is the management approach that coherently describes the attitude, culture, and organization of any firm that focuses on consumer satisfaction. Through TQM, healthcare management, as well as employees, can be well informed on the improvement of service delivery. Every organizational function, including marketing and customer service, are part of the TQM. There, therefore, are various strategies for a TQM system, which include the TQM, and the award criteria approach.
Organization Model Approach
This is a total quality management approach where the concerned people visit the organizations where the TQM's leadership role has been active. This approach provides an opportunity for the critical evaluation and determination of the process and initiatives taken in the success of the organization (Spencer, 1994). The TQM organization model approach breeds significant issues in the healthcare organization which has necessitated the quality monitoring as a result of the regulations by the government, the customer expectation and the initiatives by the healthcare provider. This approach, however, is dependent exemplification and evaluation of the healthcare companies to determine the best performing so that the employees in the healthcare attempting to implement the strategy can pick the best (Prajogo, & Sohal, 2006). For instance, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) plays a significant role in the annual shortlisting and recognition of American healthcare companies that have achieved in the implementation of the TQM. This approach is useful in understanding both the internal and external competition environment of the health care industry.
The implementation of TQM's organization model approach is a useful tool in the success of the efforts in healthcare improvements. The employees acquire the information regarding the strategies and methodology of working of the competing hospital. The information relates to how to achieve customer satisfaction and to improve service delivery. The data and procedures learned are applied in the healthcare setting to meet the needs of the market which plays a significant role in the improvement of the quality performance of the hospital. Implementation of this approach provides an exploration opportunity to the hospital's support staff. They acquire more knowledge and skills from the ones in the better performing healthcare setting which improves the efficiency and quality of care (Anderson-Miles, 1994). The organizational model approach emphasizes the bringing a change of attitude and culture in the organization by integrating new ideas and technology that are aimed at improving the performance of the organization.
This model, however, is accompanied by some drawbacks which may present more challenges in the TQM strategy. The implementation process may be difficult especially for employees who are slow in adapting to changes (Jarvis, 2007). Similarly, wrong ideas and doctrines may be incorporated in the hospital resulting in worsening of the performance of the hospital. It depends on the ideas and technology applied in other organization which may fail when the best-identified healthcare fails to provide the correct information regarding its success. This implies that the implementation of the approach is not a guarantee that the performance of the organization would increase.
The Award criteria approach
The criterion of a quality award is the main component of the model. The implementation of quality management mainly focuses on meeting specific award criteria. The award criteria approach can be used in the assessment of a firm's progress and their steps to meet the set goals and sustainable excellence (Go & Govers, 2000). The model focuses on consumer satisfaction, employee satisfaction as well as the effects on society. The various impacts noted could result from leadership, resources, and people management. The criteria can also be used to evaluate the necessary relationships between the principles of total quality management and those of the management theories (Dean & Bowen, 1994). One example of the model is the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. The approach can be used in health care as well as educational organizations (Dean & Bowen, 1994).
One of the advantages of using an award criterion is that it addresses the principal domains of total quality management. Another advantage is that it is continuously updated by experts to reflect the thinking of total quality. Additionally, the award model has no limitations regarding single quality perspective. The approach integrates various viewpoints for successful healthcare quality improvement efforts. One of the limitations that exist with this system is enormous investments for the necessary documentation to prepare applications and employee training for the award examiners (Lee, Rho & Lee, 2003). Additionally, there could be difficulties in reflecting an outstanding quality of a service offered, especially in healthcare. Finally, the model has inaccurate gauges of the competitiveness of the organization as well as the potential profits for the organization.
Some of the elements involved in an improved healthcare effort include leadership, strategic quality planning, management, human resource development, and the management of process quality. During planning, a client-driven quality and operational performance excellence are the main business issues, which are part of the overall business plan. The items in the category are the development and deployment of a customer-focused strategy, and the effective translation of plans. The total quality management would broadly deal with business unit strategy, where a comparison can be made on particular clients.
The award criteria approach is of importance as the relationships portrayed issue a message regarding the competitive ability of an organization. The model can be used as a tool for self-assessment and also continuous quality improvement hence, letting it be imperative regarding relationships. Again, it is also contributive to organizations as it lets them allocate resources towards performance improvement. Therefore, the management can well understand how quality management resources can be allocated throughout the organization.
The award criteria approach is the best approach to the TQM. The rationale is that most of an organization's practices such as human resources can be changed easily to a TQ-based perspective. Even during the shift, the selection processes cannot easily be undone, which is an advantage to a healthcare institution. Selection is essential in healthcare, and it has a prominent position in management theory yet continues to be researched. During selection, the focus is on the whole person compared to the organization model approach which depends on other organizations to get ideas on performance improvement and only focuses on technical skills, personality traits, and needs. In strategic quality, the quality-focused upon on various business activities influences an organization's competitive advantage hence, constraining the most available strategies. This would mean a convincing competitive advantage for an organization. Various points are awarded for the planning process of the company, as well as the plan requirements. Besides, employee education and training, their involvement, performance, and recognition are also suited with the award criteria approach. Financial performance such as the integration of quality functions and cost savings are not exempted from the advantages of incorporating the model hence, its suitability in a healthcare setting.
Anderson-Miles, E. (1994). Benchmarking in healthcare organizations: an introduction. Healthcare financial management: journal of the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 48(9), 58-61.
Dean, J. W., & Bowen, D. E. (1994). Management Theory and Total Quality: Improving Research and Practice through Theory Development. The Academy of Management Review, 19(3), 392. doi:10.2307/258933
Go, F. M., & Govers, R. (2000). Integrated quality management for tourist destinations: A European perspective on achieving competitiveness. Tourism Management, 21(1), 79-88. doi:10.1016/s0261-5177(99)00098-9
Jarvis, W. R. (2007). The United States approach to strategies in the battle against healthcare-associated infections, 2006: transitioning from benchmarking to zero tolerance and clinician accountability1. Journal of Hospital Infection, 65, 3-9.
Lee, S. M., Rho, B., & Lee, S. (2003). Impact of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria on organizational quality performance. International Journal of Production Research, 41(9), 2003-2020. doi:10.1080/0020754031000077329
Prajogo, D. I., & Sohal, A. S. (2006). The relationship between organization strategy, total quality management (TQM), and organization performance--the mediating role of TQM. European journal of operational research, 168(1), 35-50.
Spencer, B. A. (1994). Models of organization and total quality management: a comparison and critical evaluation. Academy of management review, 19(3), 446-471.
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