Industrialism and Capitalism From the 18th Century to 2019

Paper Type:  Research paper
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1239 Words
Date:  2022-02-18

Introduction

To begin with, industrialism is an economic or social system where manufacturing industries have become predominant over the years. Mostly, this kind of system thrives more on a mechanized system rather than through agriculture and commerce or craftsmanship. On the other hand, capitalism is a political and economic system where private owners control industries and the countries' trade in general for profit purposes and not by the government or the state. This paper, therefore, seeks to elucidate in industrialism and capitalism from the 18th century up until 2019.

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Climate Change

Consequences of Climate Change and Global Warming on People

The main idea behind capitalism was to construct it to efficiently allocate scarce resources to improve production, improve the quality of life of people of those who were ready to take part in the system and finally to encourage and promote human ingenuity. Over time, this economic model has successfully helped people in converting natural resources into final marketable products which generate income. As such it has generated quite a substantial amount of wealth and prosperity across the world.

Both in theory and practice, the general quality of life and production of wealth has and continues to be enhanced gradually through this economic model. Nonetheless, while capitalism and industrialism have borne fruits, it has subsequently brought about unforeseen and unwanted consequences (Morris, 2019).

Natural Resources

Almost every product produces by-product. Yet with our increased ability to pull out and consume the by-products from the natural resources, a corresponding amount of waste ranging from atmospheric pollution, physical garbage, and several other forms of environmental degradation have been created.

The most severe consequence arising from the continued atmospheric pollution in the world today is universal climate change (Li, 2009).This has come about from the continued methods of power generation most especially for large industries, such as the burning of fossil fuels (Eweje, 2006). This way, numerous greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide has been released into the atmosphere heated up the planet and adversely affected the climate (Li, 2009).

Impact on the Environment

Anthropogenic climate change causes impending dangers to the planets ability to sustain both human and animal life and presents one of the most problematic issues to date. Both industrializations in terms of climate change have continued to destroy the environment not taking into account any consideration for the environment. Pollution as a direct consequence of natural resources consumption must be curbed by limiting the amount and way we use natural resources.

Yet, capitalism from the beginning could not inhibit its growth and prosperity for sustainable growth and development and thus the basic assumptions under which capitalism functions renders it unable to factor in solutions for climate change.

Role of Women and Condition of Workers in Capitalism and Industrialism

To successfully exploit the working class, the capitalist class has always focused on the policy of 'divide and rule' based on sex and race. This means the less preferred sex and the race would always be called upon in case labor was needed.

Moreover, industrialization has in its way drought in a hard and quick division of labor both at work and at home (Hartigan , 2016). Back then when hand loom-weaver or spinner was the norm of the day work was done at one designated area, and gender was not an issue. This was mainly practiced in the 19th century during the British revolution all over the world.

Condition of Workers

However, following the division of work and home, the designation of roles to men and women began and intensified over time as men were assigned specific roles as were women. For example, the men were to become the family's sole breadwinner, while the women were tasked with running and taking care of the home and the children (Parker, et al. 2019).

From time to time, women would be required to work outside the home to generate more income for the family. This arose from the fact that they were considered as cheap labor as they could generate more income from their intensive input. Additionally, women were regarded as spare labor which would be sourced for in times of scarcity such as war (Hartigan , 2016).

Women were highly encouraged to work during peak times when the employers needed them. However, at the onset of a recession, it was demanded that women be returned to their homes and families and tend to their duties as men focused on returning to work. In recent years, there have been similar trends. For instance, in Britain during the Tory government, there was an economic meltdown which bred the idea of the family wage.

This was to be paid to men who had wives back at home. Today, the economy of Britain remains substantially vibrant, yet the "New Labour" government has continued to encourage women to partake in official white collar jobs while providing child care benefits and family tax credits. Additionally, it has focused on cutting benefits offered to lone parents who are unemployed and not working (Hartigan , 2016).

The division of work amongst women and men had several implications for the working class from a historical point of view. To begin with, the working class women had their loyalty torn between tending and taking care of their family to struggling for better wages at their workplaces. When it came to the pre-industrial age, women's struggles intensified as they had to resort to direct action against the parish, local landlord or the squire to complain about the increased cost of commodities. This was particularly hard on women as they were expected to provide for the family. The riots would end up in women helping themselves to loaves of bread, but this meant a lot of hardship and sacrifice.

Sometimes, the desperate need to fend for their families made most women work for smaller wages and much less compensation, and this was seen as a threat to some of the workers. Consequently, integrating women into trade unions became problematic as they were doing different kinds of work. Today the nature of women's work has changed dramatically over the last couple of centuries. Back then, the main source of income was working in cotton mills or domestic services (Auricoste & Charles, 2019).

Conclusion

In Britain today, for instance, most women have become career women and taken up big jobs in companies and the service sector. Nonetheless, some jobs are still considered to be women-oriented. For example health, social services, and education. Rates of pay are often lower, but most have adapted to the situation. Lastly, in Latin America and Asia today, most women have been employed in factories that take up similar working conditions as those in the 19th century Europe before the union movement and factory legislation could be implemented.

References

Auricoste, I.,& Charles, G. (2019). "On the Participation of the Whores Nature and Culture." 345-102-MQ: Utopian Dreamers, edited by Lisa Sumner, Eastman, 45-55.

Eweje, G. (2006). Environmental costs and responsibilities resulting from oil exploitation in developing countries: The case of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(1), 27-56.

Hartigan-O'Connor, E. (2016). Gender's Value in the History of Capitalism. Journal of the Early Republic, 36(4), 613-635.

Li, M. (2009). Capitalism, climate change and the transition to sustainability: Alternative scenarios for the US, China and the world. Development and Change, 40(6), 1039-1061.

Morris, W. (2019). "A factory as it might be." 345-102-MQ: Utopian Dreamers, edited by Lisa Sumner, Eastman, pp. 59-67.

Parker, M., et al.(2019). "Robert Owen." 345-102-MQ: Utopian Dreamers, edited by Lisa Sumner, Eastman, pp. 25-27.

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Industrialism and Capitalism From the 18th Century to 2019. (2022, Feb 18). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/industrialism-and-capitalism-from-the-18th-century-to-2019

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