Dependent variable: In our research, I examine Human Resource Development as a fundamental factor in the development of an economy. Since most of the countries examined like Kenya do not rely on natural resources like minerals, it is important to examine HRD. This is because; its the useful tool that most of these countries use in order to propel their economies. Human resource development, (H.R.D) refers to the coordinated process of enhancing human resource in an organization, region or a country for the purposes that are economic or social in nature (Academy of Human Resource Development, 2002). Human resource development is a very useful concept that is normally used to enhance productivity. It is a concept that has been adapted by governments in order to empower its citizens to utilize the skills and knowledge they have for productivity. An example of human resource development program is that of introducing ethics in the school curriculum in order to mitigate much corruption in a country.
HRD is also a concept that has played a big role in improving employability in a work place (Hatcher, 2002). This program is very useful in ensuring that effective skills are acquired by individuals to help them in the sectors of productivity in organizations they work in and also in their individual works. In this case the programs of HRD are geared towards improving the skills and sharpening the knowledge of an individual that will reciprocate in the work place as bearing great results in improving productivity. This concept is very useful since it utilizes the individual drive and motivation to perform better with minimum supervision. Taking for instance, if a person undertakes a human resource development program and takes what he learnt and applies them as principles in his work. What will happen is that he/she will get to perform exceedingly great in the work place without the supervisor or organization having to do much. In this case, the organizations and even the government should introduce these kinds of programs in order to improve their productivity. Human resource development is not only limited to employees and subordinate staff but is very useful also with the departmental heads of management.
One of the tools of HRD is training and development Stewart & Beaver, 2004. In this case, introduction of these programs as in organizations will serve greatly to improve on its capacity. It helps to meet the organizational objectives with the training needs of employees. In this case therefore, the organization will improve the relevance of its programs. In order to meets its objectives, an organization should be able to train its employees or human resource appropriately on the direction they should take in their daily activities. They should have a vision of meeting the organizations standards and objectives. It will therefore serve as a way of improving the output in terms of quality.
HRD is also very useful in ensuring the change in management in an organization. How this work is that through a motivated workforce and a well oriented spirit, the culture in the work place changes for the better. In an organization, this ultimate spirit is very useful in ensuring that the head or the top notch managerial position is skewed towards achieving the goals of an organization. In this manner therefore, the other levels in an organization will follow suit to the spirit of the management hence improving the organizational performance.
Social technical theory
The social technical theory like HRD, also tries to improve the performance of the human resource in organizations. It views the interaction of people in the workplace with the social technical resources available. The social technical resources here, refers to those resources that are technical in nature, including technology and machinery. It also means the procedure and the technical knowledge of the different fields required in individual employees (Feenberg, 1995)
The theory points out the relevance and the need for excellence in technical performance and also in the quality of work of different individuals in the work place. In this regard therefore, it relates very closely with Human Resource Development. One of the principles of the social technical theory is that the relationship and interaction between the social and technical factors plays a big role in that it creates a condition of either success or lack of it, in an organizational setting. In this case therefore, it implies that organizational performance is closely interlinked with the interaction with the technical aspects in an organization. By extension, employees or the organizational work force should be able to have high quality skills in terms of the interaction with the technical aspects of the work place, which include the know-how on technology use and operation.
The social technical aspect also strives for the joining and the designing of both the social and the technical system so that they fit together smoothly. This is to ensure the great performance of the system. The theory emphasizes the importance of the system in improving technological aspect in terms of its relevance with its intended use and function. An organization could have the best technical system but a poor relevance or relation with the team of work force.
This will pull the performance of the organization down and reduce performance. In this case therefore, it will be very important for the organization to consider improving the interaction of the technical systems in an organization with its work force. The social technical theory therefore strives for increase in productivity through a proper interaction of the technical aspect of an organization with its work force. In this case therefore, it is very important to consider having a system that is very relevant in an organization. It is also paramount to consider setting up a high quality skills and technical knowhow in an organization to ensure increased productivity and performance (A Theory of Organizational Readiness for Change, 2009).
HRD should be part of any institution that strives to increase its productivity. Since the development of human resource is closely related to the quality output, it is a very fundamental aspect that must be borrowed. The government should also embrace the policy to shore up its economy and boost productivity and entrepreneurship. The social technical aspect should also be considered keenly since it is closely related to productivity.
Dependent and independent variable
Another variable that will be useful is the G.D.P. G.D.P implies the value of the output of a country, normally within a period of quarter year. It is the value of all the goods and services produced within a country. It adds up all the values of goods and services at each stage of production, but not all the stages together. The reason for this is that G.D.P measures mainly the economic activities. That is, what happens at each stage and the values accrued from each stage. The economic activity of a country matters a lot since it consequently reflects to the day to day operations that increases productions in a given country. The following data demonstrate the GDP of some of the countries, in comparison with their population, as from 2013;
Per capita GDP- 1,245.51 USD GDP elsewhere: United States of America-16.77 trillion USD
Population- 44.35 million Uganda- 21.49 billion USD
Per capita GDP-571.96 USD GDP elsewhere: United States of America-16.77 trillion USD
Population- 37.58 million Uganda-55.24 billion USD
Per capita GDP-1,858.24 USD GDP elsewhere: United States of America- 521.8 billion USD
Population- 25.9 million Nigeria- 16.7 trillion
Per capita GDP- 3,005.51 USD GDP elsewhere: United States of America- 16.77 trillion USD
Population- 173.6 million Ghana- 48.14 billion USD
Per capita GDP- 454.34 USD GDP elsewhere: Libya- 74.2 billion USD
Population - 4.294 million
The data above indicates the varying GDPs of the five countries.
Data collection methods
The study will use both primary and secondary data. Primary data will be collected by use of structured interview questions whereas secondary data will be drawn from review of organizations profiles, annual reports and journals, the internet, books, magazines, past research findings among others. Cooper and Schindler (2006), defines primary data as original search where data being collected is designed specifically to answer the research questions.
Data will be collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher drawn from the research questions. This questionnaire is self-administered and is shared by the respondents in two ways. One would be hand delivery and the second method would be through emails. The researcher will ensure that confidentiality is maintained and the respondents are not expected to reveal their identity while filling in the questionnaires.
A questionnaire comprise of both open ended and closed ended questions. The questionnaire is divided into the main areas of investigation apart from the first part which captures the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Other sections include SMEs Management Issues related to planning, implementation and evaluation, leadership and the financial performance issues that affect SMEs sustainability.
During my research process the research tools that I will use include questionnaires which will play the role of collecting data from the respondents during my research .I will also use a laptop for storing information as backup plan for my study, I will also use stationery materials like books and pens for convenience when getting the information I want from my respondents.
Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of information collected. The data obtained from the field is in raw form and is difficult to interpret unless it is cleaned, coded and analyzed. The qualitative analysis will involve examining, categorizing, tabulating and recombining evidences to address the research questions. The qualitative data is grouped into meaningful patterns and themes that are observed to help in the summarizing and organization of the data. Data is analyzed through the use of statistical techniques such as percentages, arithmetic means, pie charts, tabulation and bar charts to enable ease of use, understanding and appreciation. The qualitative data will be analyzed descriptively. Data will be collected over a one-month period.
Academy of Human Resource Development (U.S.). (2002). Human resource development review: HRD review. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Hatcher, T. G. (2002). Ethics and HRD: A new approach to leading responsible organizations. Cambridge, Mass: Perseus Pub.
Stewart, J., & Beaver, G. (2004). HRD in small organisations: Research and practice. London: Routledge.
Feenberg, A. (1995). Alternative modernity: The technical turn in philosophy and social theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dept, I. M. F. A. (2015). Ghana. Washington: Internati...
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