Science is not just a compilation of information, ideas and practical concepts regarding nature or even the systematic aspect of investigating nature but both people use both as common definitions of science. Science is a process of exploring nature, or a method of comprehending it and discovering dependable knowledge. Thinking is part and parcel of life, and with all the challenges that face humans, critical reasoning is inevitable. Critical thinking is whereby an individual thinks correctly thus obtaining reliable solutions to issues and answers to questions. So basically, this type of thinking can give humans reliable knowledge regarding diverse aspects of life and society, and it is not under the restriction of the official study of nature.
Critical thinking involves all diagnostic thoughts that are purposed at establishing the validity of any particular claim (Cottrell, 20170 For instance, when a child questions claims by his parent. It is the point at which the mind opposes a conventional claim and starts making an analysis of the underlying premises. It is the active unrelenting, and cautious consideration of a belief or concept with the grounds that act in support of the knowledge and the additional conclusions.
A person who has been equipped with the scientific attitude is set for critical thinking. Critical thinking is deemed as vital in psychological science because it gives people the capacity to analyze, assess, elucidate and restructure thinking thus minimizing the risk of implementing or acting on a false premise. In the structure of scientific approach, critical thinking comprises obtaining information and testing it for purposes of reaching an adequately vindicated counter or conclusion. The scientific method gives essential method validity because the facts are not ideal without undergoing experimentation and assessment (Cowden & Singh, 2015). Since the scientific method comprises particular steps and deeds that have to be taken, it paves the way for critical thinking. In other words, it is the excellent commencing point for an individual to think critically.
Critical thinking instigates the proceeding of hypothesis and in the scientific method; this proposition is the first deduction or theoretical asserting concerning the world founded on observations and questions. In case critical thinking inquires about a subject, then at that moment, a hypothesis is the perfect attempt to respond to the problem by use of observable phenomenon (Wilson, Howitt, Higgins, & Roberts, 2015). For instance, according to individual observations, an astrophysicist could question presented theories of black holes and put forward a contradicting claim asserting that black holes, in fact, generate white light. Nevertheless, this is not the last deduction because the scientific method necessitates specific types of verification.
In the analysis of any hypothesis, a scientific method will use formal experimentation. The accurate and precise methodology of testing aims at gathering unprejudiced empirical evidence that will either act in contradiction or support of the claim (Mesarosova, 2014). Controlled variables are essential is the provision of an objective basis of contrast. For example, when researchers are analyzing the impacts of a given drug, are likely to give a placebo to half of the population to be tested, and the actual drug is provided to the other half. An assessment of effects of the real drug applies relating to the control category.
It is only after testing that conclusions are drawn in the scientific method and confirmable evidence supports them. Even so, findings can undergo peer review and periodic retest before reaching a consensus. Therefore, what starts as an act of critical thinking turns into a multifaceted process of evaluating the validity of an argument in the scientific method. According to philosopher Francis Bacon, if people start with certainties, they will conclude in doubts, but if they are comfortable to commence in doubts, they will finish in assurances (Wilson, Howitt, Higgins, & Roberts, 2015)
Various factors drive how people make decisions, behave and react to given beliefs. Even after presenting proven facts regarding a particular issue, people still make assumptions or rather conclude otherwise. Scientists have come up with theories describing the manner in which humans process and argue about information. Unfortunately, there is a growing propensity to visualize people as beings whose mechanisms of reasoning are highly reliant on a constricted set of methods. It is of the great essence for communicated information to be evidence-based and be of a strong theoretical foundation. This will result in essential insights and change people's perception regarding different theories.
There are many situations where I have assumed essential matters that could have been of positive impact. One of the reasons that led to assumptions and controversial inferences was the deficit of information. Being less knowledgeable about an issue can merely drive to ignorance of facts. Surrounding people with more and more details will ultimately help them come around on a matter. Generally, people tend to have inadequate information in various fields of life. For example, fad diets could be existence, but some people may have minimum details regarding them while some do not know that they exist. This one time I had gained weight and I wanted to lose some pounds quickly, so I thought of using fad diets. This was advice from a friend who had used them, and the results were positive. I didn't know the negative impacts, so I just used, but the effects were drastic. I began experiencing fatigue, constipation, headaches, nausea, and dehydration.
Another factor that has led to assumption even with presented evidence is feelings and poor judgment. Sometimes, I tend to depend on opinions other than existing facts in directing my stance and behavior. In most cases, people will act according to how they feel regarding a given issue. There is what is engraved in people's mind and what they believe which is in contrary to the facts.
Cultural cognition profoundly determines human thinking and argument. Cultural values and worldviews form our perception towards science. It is only pure to be tricked into thinking about the brain like a sponge that contains just the information it wants to accept as real. For reasons of protecting the cultural worldview, people could act in opposition to scientific evidence that seems to be threatening.
I have thought about psychokinesis to be some witchcraft. I don't see how a person can use their mind to move objects. People say that the brain has power, but I don't know how one can move an object devoid of physical intervention. If an individual wants to run something, they have to bend, stand up or move closer to it. In my culture, this can only be in association with some force such as witchcraft or other supernatural powers. Thus even with evidence, changing my perception can be quite daunting.
Cultural believes could be supported or opposed by science. Science deals with facts, and even with critical thinking, if this belief has not undergone experimentation, it is not valid scientifically. One of the ways which I could improve my thinking regarding psychokinesis is collecting data on the topic analyzing it on a scientific basis. Learning about experimental design could help change my argument and apply the scientific method. Even after scholars scientifically assessing the aspect of psychokinesis, much evidence on the matter is still pending.
In conclusion, critical thinking entails continuously asking questions, scrutinizing data and evidence and coming up with conclusions. These are the foundations of a scientific method that presents ideal evidence which leads to valid conclusions. After testing, conclusions are drawn in the scientific method, and confirmable evidence supports them. Even so, findings can undergo peer review and periodic retest before reaching a consensus. Various factors drive how people make decisions, behave and react to given beliefs. Generally, people tend to have inadequate information in various fields of life, and this may lead to incorrect inferences. Even after presenting proven facts regarding a particular issue, people still make assumptions or rather conclude otherwise. The scientific method is successfully used to challenge our thinking in that facts are not ideal before data is collected, experimented on, assessed and then there is the presentation of deductions.
Cottrell, S. (2017). What is critical thinking? Critical Thinking Skills, 1-16. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-55052-1_1
Cowden, S., & Singh, G. (2015). Critical Pedagogy: Critical Thinking as a Social Practice. The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education, 559-572. doi:10.1057/9781137378057_33
Mesarosova, M. (2014). COGNITIVE COMPETENCE, SCIENTIFIC THINKING, APPROACH TO STUDYING AS THE PREDICTORS OF THE CRITICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THINKING IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. SGEM2014 1 International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference. doi:10.5593/sgemsocial2014/b11/s1.007
Wilson, A. N., Howitt, S. M., Higgins, D. M., & Roberts, P. J. (2015). Making Critical Thinking Visible in Undergraduates' Experiences of Scientific Research. The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education, 491-508. doi:10.1057/9781137378057_29
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