History of England Essay Example

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  8
Wordcount:  1959 Words
Date:  2022-07-03


The England country was settled back in 500,000years ago with the first human being settling in the area at around 35000 to 10000 years a central ago. At the time at which the sea level in the country was lower and when Britain had links through connection with European. It is at this time when it had people who established the early megalithic monuments of Avebury and Stonehenge. In the period between 500 and 1500 BCE, the tribes had already begun migrating from central Europe and France to Britain after which they incorporated themselves in with the origin in habitats. This period was called the Bronze Age (Donnelly, 57).

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The Romans tried to invade the country but were unsuccessful until 43 CE after which they controlled most of the nowadays country wales and England. They founded a group of cities among which were York, St Albans, Bath, London, Lancaster, Gloucester, Chester, Leicester, Winchester, Chichester, and Manchester all being Roman towns. This thesis looks forward to discussing the history of England at between 1400 and 1500 AD. It will be helpful in future knowing the far and the progress the country has managed which will be useful in future forecasting through history consideration (Jeffrey, 65).


The core change in England during the 15th century was the change of the economy. Although the plague was an issue by then, there was an insignificance change in the population level in the country. During this period there was a massive disappearance of villain labor and their replacement by copyhold tenure ship. At that time the reign was referred to as that of the golden laborers commonly called the golden age whereby the individual prosperity mainly varied. Among the peasants, this marked the development of the land market a condition which triggered some of the peasants rising above the level of their neighbors and constituting a class known as yeomen (Groenewoudt, 23).

Several landlords avoided managing their estates directly and started embracing the system referred to as the leasehold. Tenants faced an escalating level of the rents, and due to this there was the problem of maintaining income levels, and to them, this was a significant challenge. Much land enclosure happened facilitated by landlords solving the problem of low labor by conversion of the holding into sheep pasture, and this resulted in the abandonment of the villagers by their original inhabitants (Haldane, Andrew 32).

The kingdom of England gets out of the demographic catastrophe and from the agricultural depression in the 14th century. By this, the population was increasing and noted the growth in numbers. It meant that food needs to be produced to cater for the growth in communities and through this, gentleman sheep growers, urban cloth makers and manufactures, yeoman farmers and the merchants who had come up were at the challenge of economic and social revolution in the country. More to that through population increase and increased activities, the export started paving its way whereby the commodities such as the woolen cloth and purchasing of the fleece (Robbins, 34).

Even though the country remained a core in the agrarian revolution and society, a lot of the developments took place at the cities and towns, and this was marked by the London which grew as it dominated the south-east part. In other areas, there was the development in major industries such as the woolen fostering changes in the regions. More to that, other sectors such as that of Leeds and Halifax grew on the side of York and in the expense of the part of eastern of Yorkshire at West Riding, and by this, the region of Cotswold and Suffolk became crucial in the development of the country economy. The rise, development and the trade in cloths lead to arising and the association of the great merchants in the area. It was precisely in the field of exporting the raw wool and again pointed to the prosperity of the Italian merchants in England and the same changes experienced by the German merchants by the Edward IV (Hart, 79).


Regarding culture in the 15th century was sterile or intact. It was at this time when the chronicles of monastic became to completion, and the decreasing in the writing of the history and the Thomas Walsingham became the last distinguishable at the lineage of the St. Albans chroniclers. Even though there were some chronicles and documents which were written by the London citizen, they came later, and no superior work of theorist or philosophers existed at the time (John, 93).

Reginald Peacock came up with an English treatise which was against and criticizing the Lollards and emphasized on the helm of the foundation of the Christian faith. During this period again no poets broke were able to succeed the Chaucer irrespective of having English poetry. It was at this time when the John Lydgate came with a lot of verse in the interest of Lancastrian. One of the printers known as William Caxton introduced the press for publishing the work of English to escalate the public reading and creation of awareness. It was at this time when the publication of stamps, Celys and Paston took place (Rossner, 59).

This period of the 15th century was still the core which laid the foundations for the colleges and schools in which some arose as guilds, some by churches and other were chantries adjuncts. The college of Eton in 1440, Cambridge and the Kings' college which came up in 1441, Henry IV was the pioneer. It was the same period when the college of Cambridge and Oxford founded. The membership was systematized in law teaching and escalated by the Inns of Court. The lawyers and non-lawyers of the son of the founders became part and in the management of inns only that they needed the clue of the law in the administration and in extending their estates. During this time the Italian renaissance in culture and learning was limited before 1485 though some patrons supported and collected books, for instance, the Duke of Gloucester and Humphrey (Bert, 27).

The architecture of England at that time showed a lot of originality in their works primarily in the building of churches which resembled the perpendicular style in the region where the woolen industries were due to the wealth for instance in the Richard Beauchamp at Warwick and King's (Philipp, 61).

England under the Tudors Henry VIIThe English men thought that the rising of the throne of the Henry Tudor on August 1485 after the death of Richard III would lead to 118 years of ruling. In that time, the six sovereigns came and went and the 15 battle was fought among the rival due to the violation of the doth hedge king and the resignation of the Richard II. The thought that Henry VII will rise to power at that particular time was rumors in the military during the wrangles between the house of Lancaster and the house of the York. The Henry Tudor won not due to the ability to mobilize the people, but because the clergymen left Richard III at the time he needed them. These were Thomas Stanley and Sir William who were favoring the winning team and the Louis XI who was the leading supplier of the mercenary troops to the Lancaster forces (Stijnman, 83).

The new monarchy doubted his claim, and through this, the Henry VII blood at the Lancaster tainted the twice the illegitimacy. It followed where his mother descended him from the family of Beaufort on which the act of parliament had already legitimized john of gaunt Katherine who was his mistress from the succession. The king who rose to power sought fortification by acclamation of the parliament and the ended by the royal engagement and marriage. The parliament at that time issued the Henry with the power of being a new sovereign leader, and by the year 1486 on January 18th, the Henry married Elizabeth leading to unity in between the red versus the white a period of peace fostering in England. It forecasted the days of the New England in which the prince who was successful was to be praised compared to the monarch leading to a time of social change and economic growth (Elizabeth, 92).

Dynastic threats

Though it was recommendable to call the leadership of Henry VII a new monarchy, it had the blood of administration which was royal and modern and his period introduced a new system of the ruling which was never before. The issue and the problem of the Elizabeth ended the war through the marriage and the challenge paused by the Edward IV son had been stamped out who was murdered by Richard III, and the nephew of Richard was already under imprisonment. The only threat was the sisters and daughter of the Edward IV. The other challenge was the myth which existed implying that the youngest of the princes murdered had escaped assassination in the tower of London and escapement by an earl of Warwick from jail (Keith, 39).

More to that there were a lot of pretenders who acted and existed as a catalyst for the discontent and the aspirations of the Yorkist. The nephew of Edward IV known as John de la Pole in 1487 with 2000 troops support landed in England in favor of Lambert Simne, and the de la Pole left Battle of Stoke (Wrigley, 64)

The administration of justice

Just like in many kingdoms, the money bought power by the law was to be enforced and respected by all. It was in line with the agendas of the Henry VII whose dominant aspiration was to make the system function well and sound. He developed the administration organs in which he brought them under his control and eliminated all sorts of privileges. The king was in this situations helped by the high aristocratic, and at times policies took charge. The commission of arrays which comprised of locally appointed by the crown county with the aim of using aristocracy in matters regarding rising of the troops helped the king, and it had no power of maintaining army since this could lead them in intimidating the throne. At first, the monarchy enforced the law on maintenance and livery, but two Tudors built up machinery for law enforcement and sort to apply it in all the corners of their kingdom. Through this, the government expanded in the northern counties (Anthony 67)


To conclude, during the 15th century was the change of the economy. Although the plague was an issue by then, there were a very little indicated changes in the population in England. During this period there was low labor and their replacement by copyhold. Regarding culture in the 15th century was intact. The chronicles of monastic became to completion. History recording decreased and the taking over of leadership by Henry VII. The thesis has succeeded in discussing the history of England. This history will be relevant in future knowing the far and the progress the country has managed which will be useful in future forecasting through history consideration (Anthony, 19)

Works cited

Cobban, Alan B. The medieval English universities: Oxford and Cambridge to c. 1500. Routledge, 2017.

Cunliffe, Barry. Wessex to 1000 AD. Routledge, 2016.

De Pleijt, Alexandra M., and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. "Accounting for the "Little Divergence": What drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300-1800?." European Review of Economic History 20.4 (2016): 387-409.

Donnelly, Jeffrey P., et al. "Climate forcing of unprecedented intensehurricane activity in the last 2000 years." Earth's Future 3.2 (2015): 49-65.

Groenewoudt, Bert, et al. "Towards a reverse image. Botanical research into the landscape history of the eastern Netherlands (1100 BC-AD 1500)." Landscape History 29.1 (2007): 17-33.

Haldane, Andrew G. "Growing, fast and slow." University of East Anglia 17 (2015).

Harper-Bill, Christopher. The pre-Reformation church in England 1400-1530. Routledge, 2014.

Hart, John P., et al. "Nation building and social signaling in southern Ontario: AD 1350-1650." PloS one 11.5 (2016): e0156178.

Kumin, Beat A. The shaping of a community: The rise and ref...

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