In the topic, "Motivation and Emotion", the author contends that there are certain factors that influence the way people behave. Different motivations can influence, shape, and terminate behavior. Everything that people do is a direct result of needs that are aligned to different motivating factors Biological processes can determine the actions of human beings. For instance, eating is a response that people have whenever they feel hungry. The brain controls the hunger that people that could be triggered by other variables. For example, there is a strong relationship between obesity and one's biological processes (King, 2016: 331). The condition could be inherited or may be a reaction to the biological impulses that individuals have. Sexual behavior also has motivations that emanate from cognitive interpretations. The relationship that one has with their environment is a strong factor for their behavior. The rationale is that this interpretation shapes their cultural and social conformity that reflects in their sexual activities. Certain scripts and social interactions motivate the sexual behavior. For example, women have had to learn to wait for men to make advances before they engage in intercourse even when they have interest. Biology is also a motivator for sexual behavior because it creates aspects such as arousal upon sexual thoughts and other aspects. There are factors such as sexual orientation that could determine this behavior. Individuals are also motivated by their own perceptions. For example, high achievers find motivation from within and set high goals to achieve. Additionally, the topic discusses emotions that can be physiological, adaptive, or influenced by many other external factors. Emotional concepts center on facial expressions that are used to illuminate internal feelings of joy, anger, frustration, fear, and happiness. Human beings have other needs that target self-actualization and influence who they become (King, 2016: 341). The purpose of this paper is to showcase that human behavior and emotion does not occur without a reason; rather, everything is a systematic response to one's biology, their surroundings, culture, needs, and personal preferences.
Relationship to the Self
The topic is relevant to me because it explains my behavior and emotional reaction towards different things. I have always prided myself in being an independent person with their own sense of behavior and direction. However, after studying this topic, I have come to understand that while there are some things that I conduct independently, most of my behavior is motivated by both internal and external factors. I have a high affinity for cognitive interpretations because I tend to conform to cultural demands and expectations especially when it relates to sexual behavior (King, 2016: 333). In this case, everything I do is premised on the rules that my culture imposes on how I should behave. I can relate to the concepts of scripts that in turn inform stereotypes that label my sexual behavior (King, 2016: 333). For example, there are societal rules about the number of dates that should take place before I engage in sexual intercourse with someone else. The standard is three dates and I abide by these rules before intimacy because they are part of a constructed script on how I should carry myself. Every expectation and behavior I have has a motivating factor that goes hand in hand with societal rules. For instance, I always behave respectfully towards the opposite sex because it is a taboo to act out of character considering aspects such as the need for consent. Besides, just like most people, my sexual arousal and the degree of the same can be motivated by the attractiveness of the other party (vision) (King, 2016: 336).
Additionally, most of my actions are a result of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. I can classify myself as a high achiever because I work hard towards goals that I set. My motivation emanates from the need to do something exceptional in my life that I have put above other needs as can be explained in the self-determination theory (King, 2016: 341). I can term this as a motivation that comes from within the self and pushes me to behave in a way that pursues the best opportunities in life. Even so, external factors also play a motivating role in my goals in life. I am an individual whose parents taught them the values of hard work. My goals are a response of their expectations of me. Therefore, the examples illustrate how every single action, whether internal or external in nature, has a cause behind it that is termed as the motivator in chapter 9 of the class reading.
Moreover, my emotional responses are motivated by different aspects. For instance, the cognitive interpretation of my environment will most likely trigger how I emotionally respond to different aspects. I can also control my emotions whenever I feel a strong desire to do the same (King, 2016: 344). For example, when someone provokes me, I am most likely to experience the emotion of anger that I always struggle to control. I perform distractions that enable me to maintain my behavior and avoid acting in ways that cultural scripts infer to be disrespectful; fighting that could be perceived as assault. I may drink a glass of water or walk away to distract myself from reacting in this emotional manner.
How It Relates to Others
In the relationship of motivation and emotion to others, I will discuss the behavior of my friends because they exhibit many motivations discussed in this chapter. When it comes to eating behavior, I can infer that most of my friends draw their behavior from the patterns that their minds have formulated towards the same. For instance, they can engage in mindless eating because this is a pattern of behavior to which they are accustomed. For instance, the book discusses the fact that parents often tell their children to "finish the plate," which has often led individuals to think that being full can only take place when they have finished their food (King, 2016: 331). Such aspects have a strong relationship to issues like obesity that are controlled by our minds. I have a friend who struggles with weight but cannot seem to get rid of the stimulus that encourages the behavior of eating. For example, whenever they see food, they have to help themselves because they immediately feel hungry.
Additionally, I have friends who reflect the concept of adaptive emotions that may be related to some cognitive interpretations and cultural scripts. They may feel anger or frustration from aspects that bring them shame or guilt. For example, one day when we were at the cinema, two of my friends started teasing one another. It is a normal occurrence since jokes are a strong foundation of our friendship. Usually, we laugh about such aspects and continue to enjoy our activity. However, on this particular day, one friend initiated a fight and became extremely angry because the joke was told in front of a lady he loved and he felt ashamed. The action of being violent with our other friend was motivated by the fact that he felt ashamed.
Furthermore, I have seen many components of the motivators of sexual behavior among my friends. For instance, the biological motivations of sexual activity and arousal are related to visual components. I had friends who spoke of their sexual escapades in sexually explicit sites and mentioned being aroused by what they saw. Their behavior in such cases can be explained by the optimum arousal theory that explains how individuals become excited when exposed to certain aspects like explicit videos (King, 2016: 327). Moreover, sexual activity among my friends is very closely related to cultural scripts that motivate their behavior. For instance, we live in a generation of the "hook-up" culture that is quite normal. Hence, some of my friends refrain from commitment in relationship because they want to be part of this culture that informs their promiscuity.
Some of my friends conduct behavior that is completely premised on aspects that are exciting in nature (King, 2016: 333). For example, one of my friends is always excited when they come close to machinery. He finds joy in fixing equipment and machinery around the house. However, this same friend can never wash dishes and feels unmotivated whenever he is required to go into the kitchen. His behavior is indicative of the fact that all behavior is motivated because there is a sense of need, excitement, or obligation that facilitates it.
As expected, the needs of human beings are not just sexual in nature. Apart from eating and sex, individuals have an inherent need to feel safe, belong somewhere, and so on in order to self-actualize (King, 2016: 341). For instance, my sister showcased the need for safety when she abandoned a good school to be close to our parents.
The paper illustrates that most behavior is motivates because it is a response to different aspects such as need and excitement. The essay has answered the question, "Why do human beings do what they do?" In reality, individuals do not merely wake up and develop an inclination to do something without the presence of a motivator. Even the emotions that people have are dependent on the motivations that emanate from their biology, cognitive interpretations, intrinsic values, and physiological reactions. Behaviors that reflect sex and eating have been highlighted in this paper because they are the most strongly motivated among human beings. They are influenced by scripts, cognitive interpretation of a person's environment, perceptions, and biological frameworks. Behavior and emotions are mere responses to these aspects that motivate individuals to meet certain needs. The essay also showcased that some self-motivating behaviors such as achievement or setting goals also have underlying causes. Therefore, the overall conclusion is that there is are reasons for the manner in which people behave in today's society.
King, L. A. (2016). Experience psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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