The terms communicative competence is mostly used in the field of linguistic, communicative competence brings the aspects of sociolinguistic because of the ability to utilize grammatical competence in various aspects of communication. In the concept of communicative aspect theory, the component of expertise is the ability to create meaning in language. This the ability of an individual to understand the language and other uses of the languages. There are three types of knowledge in communicative competence that is the knowledge on how to use the language in a certain social context, the knowledge to use grammatical ideologies and use of knowledge to combine utterances and communicate meaning.
The knowledge in grammatical comprises of abilities to use phonology, morphology, and vocabularies under different under different independent areas. These type of grammatical knowledge helps in the construction of proper sentences by understanding their content of propositional. There is also the knowledge of pragmatic the author tries to show, the knowledge of pragmatic is the ability to comprehend and interpret discourse.it is also the sociolinguistic agreements for understanding and interpreting the utterances of language which have a significant meaning in the certain context of utilization of language. The author helps the reader to understand that communicative competence needs planning so that to decide on how to use the knowledge and other components.
The theory of communicative competence is expressed by the author based on the three assumptions," monologism," elementarism and priorism in monogolosm and priorism. The author shows how semantic universals go before all socialization. The author also shows how the content of semantic does not comprise of all the natural languages with a certain number of significant components. When a speaker communicate he or she uses the role of dialogue -constitutive as one of the formal apparatus.
The author also tries to show how linguistic competence is different depending on the co-speaker. This is because the theory of communicative competence deals with the different role of social-cultural and non-uniform speech of community. The author also explains that the social elements greatly affect the use of the grammar because of the restrictions on the rule of speech which affect the form of linguistics. The author also says that the grammar would not be significant if there would be no rules of restriction on the use of grammar.
Communication capability is the creation of a fundamental system of knowledge and proficiency required for communication. The author shows how the aspect of ability is very important in communication competence. The author says that communication competence is the same as proficiency in the language. Communication competence is also comprised of the ability and knowledge of both the non-verbal and verbal communication tactics which helps the speaker to deliver a message to the audience appropriately. The use of the communication strategies helps in enhancing the effectiveness of communication to the audience. The tactics used in verbal and non-verbal communication includes circumlocution, paraphrasing, modification of the information and repetition. Based on the model of Palmer the ability of language is comprised of two categories that are the language knowledge and strategic competence. The write of the theory of communication competence tries to show that competence in communication is important during the communication process
Systematically Distorted Communication
The other theory that Habermas discusses in his research is on systematically distorted communication. In this theory, the author tries to show the reader two ways in which the communication can be disrupted. Communication can be disrupted through distorting communication and manipulation. In manipulation, it's when one of the individuals deceive the other person who does not know the original information. The person can decide to add more information or give minimal details based on the information. In systematically distorted communication Habermas says the participants deceive themselves based on the facts and acts deliberately when they only seem to adopt the attitude of reaching the understanding.
The difference between manipulation and systematically distorted communication is that manipulation is about deception to other people but systematically distorted communication is about self-deception. In systematically distorted communication the author says that it happens when the border has been intersected. The people who deceive themselves are referred to as interlocutors who perceive that they have total control of exchange, and the purpose is a common understanding. Nazi language is one of the examples of systematically distorted communication that is deployed by the author. In the Nazi language, the author says that it has one of the interlocutors who are self-deceived in the Third Reich. The Nazi language is adopted by many people in the Religion especially gospel. For example the Christian people especially the Catholic are given the saints name. They believe that they will get the favor from the saint's name, this what Habermas says self-deception and he thinks that those Christians are self-deceiving. Nazi language is just propaganda because Joseph Goebbels preserved the group or individual into the common property where they do that by adopting the old resources, which changes the value of words and their incidence
The author says the German people were self-deceived by believing the Nazi ideologies; they thought they were using the simple truth. Later the people realized that they were using the language which had evil intent. Most of the time systematically distorted communication seems to be very persuasive in which many people end up deceiving themselves. The systematically distorted language also lead to emerging of sexist language which the society adopts. The author says that some decades go Robin Lakoff speculated that sexist language is not only hegemonic but also ideological. The power of communication was denied to women.
The study of sexist language enhance the understanding the nature of systematically distorted communication.it show that in the society the level of self-deception exists, but it contrasts from the cognizant intent of Nazi language. The contrast comes where the sexist language is very unescapable while the Nazi language perverseness is limited to certain social interaction. Systematically distorted communication is also used in drug promotion especially in the United States.
In the study, the author tries to show how communication can affect the social status of the people. How the forms of communication affect the life of people. The author portrays the importance of communication competence and the effects of systematically distorted communication in society. After reading his writing, I have learned that interaction affects the decision made by community and how systematically communication is used in society for example in drug promotion in the United States.
Habermas, J. (2015). Communication and the Evolution of Society. John Wiley & Sons.
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