Paper Sample on HIV Infection in Prisons

Paper Type:  Article review
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  974 Words
Date:  2021-09-02

What is the phenomena/problem of interest? Within-prison drug injection among HIV-infected male prisoners in Indonesia.

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

Are the phenomena/problems clearly defined? Yes, new HIV infection cases had risen by 48%. Infection cases had declined in other countries.

Do authors provide sufficient explanation of what is already known about the phenomena/problem? Yes. They state that people who inject drugs make up the largest part of people living with HIV aids in the country.

Is the research placed in the context of what is already known about the phenomenon? Yes. It is known that most of the infections are transmitted through sharing of needles among prisoners.

What is the justification for using qualitative methods? They provide more information as to why people behave in a certain way.

What new knowledge is anticipated? I anticipate to read about how the pandemic can be addressed.

Research Design:

What is the theoretical framework for the study? The increased cases of HIV infections witnessed in the country among prisoners is due to the sharing of syringes among the prisoners.

What is the research design and is it clearly stated? The researchers used a mixed-method study design comprising of semi-structured interviews. It was clearly stated.

Does the research design provide a good fit with the research aims? Yes. It provided them with qualitative information which was required.

Is the study completed according to the processes described? Yes. All the methods are clearly outlined. The process was also followed appropriately.

Sample and Setting:

What is the larger target population for the study? HIV-infected male prisoners

Describe the sample. The sample consisted of 102 randomly-selected male prisoners living with HIV.

What type of sampling is used? Random sampling. The prisoners were randomly selected.

Are informants appropriate to inform the research? Yes. They provide information that can help in the research.

How was the number of participants determined? A computer program randomly selected 60 patients per site. However, the number fell from 120 to 102.

Data Collection:

How were data collected? Through analysis of semi-structured interviews.

Was the step-by-step procedures well-articulated and replicable? Yes. The procedures are comprehensive and can easily be replicated.

Is saturation of data described? Yes. The researchers point out different limitation in their research.

How is protection of human subjects addressed? The researchers did not ask about current Within-prison drug injection in fear of retribution from prison authorities.

Data Analysis:

What methods are used to analyze data? Data was analyzed using SPPS statistical package.

What criteria are used to determine data saturation? The use of only two prisons and their inability to distinguish between past and current WP-DI.

How did researchers identify patterns in the data? They used collinearity to observe between substance abuse and HIV-related symptoms.

What strategies are used to analyze the data? There is the use of SPPS statistical package, bivariate correlations of WP-DI and the use of dependent variables.

Describe how credibility, auditability and fittingness of the data are addressed. The researchers acknowledge that the study builds on previous research. The researchers also explain the limitations of their study. The information provided can also be easily counter-checked.


Adequate Are findings defined, coherent, and clearly delineated? The findings are well-defined. The sample characteristics are easily identifiable.

Are the findings well supported by the data and seem credible and authentic? All the findings are backed up by auditable data.

Have the authors adequately addressed outliers? I could not find any reported incidence of an outlier.

Do tables, figures, and/or illustrations neatly capture results? The tables and figures adequately capture and outline data. The data can also be easily verified.

Is the information in tables, figures, and/or illustrations consistent with the study findings in the text? I could not find any inconsistency in the information provided in the tables.


Do the authors adequately state the implications of their findings? Yes. They propose that structural interventions need to be put in place and also there should be access to needle-syringe programs.

Are the findings discussed in the context of what is already known about the phenomena/problem? Yes. The research builds on previous qualitative work on the dynamics of syringe-sharing and HIV risks in prisons.

Are the limitations are noted appropriate and comprehensive? The limitations are comprehensive. They beget the need for further research. The researchers clearly stated that the study was conducted on only two prisons and therefore it could be necessary to expand the research to other prisons in order to come up with more generalized conclusions.


Do the conclusions reflect the studys findings? Yes. It was based on the research findings.

What are the recommendations for future research? More accurate reporting of WP-DI should be enhanced during the subsequent studies.

What are the researchs implications for nursing? There is bound to be an increased need for primary care for the infected patients.

Did you find the study relevant? With the increased infection rates in Indonesia, I believe it is necessary to address the problem of HIV infection among prisoners. The study is therefore relevant.

What audience would be most interested in the study and why? Medical practitioners and government authorities. The two can work together to eradicate more infections within the prison systems.

What overall recommendations would you make from critiquing this study? Id recommend that the study is conducted on a larger population with more participants in order to get a generalized conclusion. The study should also be expanded to other prisons and should involve both male and female participants.


Culbert, G. J., Waluyo, A., Iriyanti, M., Muchransyah, A. P., Kamarulzaman, A., & Altice, F. L. (2015). Within-prison drug injection among HIV-infected male prisoners in Indonesia: A highly constrained choice. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 149, 71-79. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.018

Radovanovic, Z. M., & Jevremovic, I. R. (1989). Screening for HIV infection in prisons. Journal of Public Health, 11(3), 260-260. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubmed.a042477

Cite this page

Paper Sample on HIV Infection in Prisons. (2021, Sep 02). Retrieved from

Free essays can be submitted by anyone,

so we do not vouch for their quality

Want a quality guarantee?
Order from one of our vetted writers instead

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the ProEssays website, please click below to request its removal:

didn't find image

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism