Human Resource Management refers to the strategic system and policies utilized in managing people in an institution to maximize their performance towards meeting the employers' strategic objectives. Employee Performance refers to the worker's behavior at work and their effectiveness in performing tasks assigned to them. Employee Development refers to processes with which employees undergo various training programs that enhance their knowledge and skills. Human Resource Management involves a myriad of strategic approaches towards managing people, through different training models and strategies, Employee Development and Performance are the key aspects in achieving positive business outcomes and success.
The ADDIE Model
The Addie Model is the most suitable training model in maintaining and enhancing employee competence in an organization. The training technique is efficient since it prevents duplication of skills that may inconvenience the company. The framework proffers five critical elements for training employees; Analysis, Design, Development, and Implementation. However, due to its flexibility, the model does not necessarily use a hierarchical training approach. Analysis, which is mostly the first step, entails the evaluation of an employee's skills and capabilities, which provides for the setting of training goals and objectives. The design stage gets characterized by outlining, organizing, and integrating different tasks and responsibilities to achieve certain objectives. It outlines the imperative relationships and procedures needed for the success of a particular job. A plan for the model gets enacted at this stage (Bansal & Gupta, 2018). Critical components at this stage include integrating job tasks and responsibilities with their relevant qualified candidates, thus promoting job specialization. The program gets executed at the development stage. The experience gets utilized in ensuring system efficacy. At the implementation stage, the system continuously gets improved to enhance its relevance. The evaluation stage, either formative or summative, revisits the accomplished goals and the shortcomings of the system upon which further improvements get made.
In spite of its proficiency, the introduction of a new training routine may develop unforeseen challenges. Firstly, the work culture has to evolve to suit the new system. As a result, it deteriorates employee's abilities to deliver quality work within the stipulated deadlines. Secondly, the implementation of a new system may be time-consuming unless it is on the job training. Regardless, it lessens the employees' output significantly. Finally, a new training methodology eradicates innovation in production since employees get bound by a specific set of instructions for action implementation.
Employee Training Techniques
Among the various systems used to train employees online training, on the job training, and classroom-based training stands out the most (DeNisi, & Murphy 2017). Online training incorporates the use of videos, eLearning courses, and webinars to keep employees up to date with current market changes regarding their professionals. With the emerging trends in globalization and technological advancements, companies are striving to keep up with the stiff competition. Therefore online training institutions can get the best out of their employees since they offer vast knowledge that can get accessed from anywhere. On the job training aims at enhancing time management in an enterprise. The system aligns the training aspects into day to day staff engagements. Thus, employees are enlightened as they deliver and meet their tasks and obligations accordingly. Classroom-based training is among the traditional routines that are still used and achieve desired results. The methodology is efficient in highlighting the critical aspects of any training endeavor. As such, the management can enhance quality output and maximum utilization of labor.
Retail employees have to ensure absolute customer focus to elevate company sales. To realize this, and on the job, the training methodology will be most suitable. However, on the hour supervision should get enacted to enable employees to grasp critical concepts (DeNisi, & Murphy 2017). Through it, common courtesy in the workplace, especially when engaging consumers, will get emphasized. Common mistakes by employees that deteriorate the firm's reputation can get easily identified and discouraged. It is vital to note the sensitivity of the retail department in meeting set goals and objectives. Therefore firms must strive to elevate their competency and output.
Performance Management and Performance Appraisal
Performance management refers to strategic activities and results that ensure the effective and efficient realization of a company's objectives. Performance appraisal refers to the evaluation of employees to gauge their strengths and capabilities for further development and growth. Over the past decade, there has been an overwhelming preference for performance management over performance appraisal. The trend gets attributed to the immense benefits companies realized from performance management in comparison to performance appraisal.
Trends in the business world have witnessed a shift from performance appraisal to performance management to enhance productivity. While the former is a traditional routine that gets aimed at rewarding past accomplishments, the latter focuses on the daily contributions and strife of each of the employees. Over the past decade, various firms have realized more significant benefits with performance management. Also, performance appraisals are conducted strictly only once or twice annually (Dipboye, & Dipboye, 2018). It lessens the financial expenses incurred by firms in rewarding employees. Performance management is a continuous process of evaluating the output of employees in line with the company's expectations. Since performance management is an ongoing procedure, often of times, stakeholders are also involved in the training process. However, performance appraisals are only restricted to direct executives and the Human Resource Department. Appraisals get regarded as operational tools for boosting the employee's productivity. On the other hand, performance management gets considered to be a strategic tool to enhance organizational growth and development.
Regarding the two critical labor-management leadership techniques, performance management is the most effective. Over the past decade, there has been a shift in economic control from baby boomers to millennials; effective methods of recognizing employees must get adopted. While baby boomers prioritized monetary gains, millennials are more responsive to exceptional work-life balance. Furthermore, empathetic employers are in a position to sway more qualified and competent employees in the global market. It promotes healthy competition in the labor markets. Hence, to motivate and derive the most out of employees, it is crucial to boost their morale that can get achieved through performance management. For instance, consider the latest trend where many employers are allowing staff to accompany their pets in the workplace. It ascertains the firm's commitment to the employee's values. Thereby boosting staff morale and ensuring that employees meet their set goals and objectives.
Employee Training and Development refers to an organization's effort in improving its employee's performance through various educational and training programs. It is an essential aspect of Human Resource Management since it creates a skilled workforce and motivates workers. Additionally, it is an effective business strategy since with highly skilled and motivated workers, the organization's goals are efficiently and effectively met, thus boosting revenues. Employee Training and Development addresses an organization's weaknesses, enhances employee's performance, encourages innovation, and promotes an organization's reputation.
In conclusion, ADDIE training model is a useful technique that trains employees while preserving the company's resources. It ensures companies can develop and implement the most suitable frameworks based on past experiences. Furthermore, a final analysis of the system's performance enables companies to depict loopholes in the system and recommend relevant actions. Online training, on the job training, and classroom-based training are some of the techniques that institutions utilize to enlighten employees on current and emerging trends. Performance management stands out as the most effective technique of rewarding employees. It ensures that employers are empathetic to their employees, elevates the precision of the company's strategies, and enhances output in the long run. It will enable an organization to compete effectively in the hostile global market.
Aguenza, B. B., &Som, A. P. M. (2018). Motivational factors of employee retention and engagement in organizations. IJAME. Retrieved 2020 February 6 from https://www.managementjournal.info/index.php/IJAME/article/viewFile/233/222.
Bansal, J., & Gupta, P. (2018). Human Resource Management System. Retrieved 2020 February 6 from http://www.opentextbooks.org.hk/system/files/export/32/32088/pdf/Human_Resource_Management_32088.pdf.
DeNisi, A. S., & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421.
Dipboye, R. L., & Dipboye, R. L. (2018). Employee Training and Development. ISBN: 978-1-78743-785-2
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Perkins, M. J. (2018). Organizational Leadership Activities That Positively Influence Virtual Employee Engagement. Retrieved 2020 February 6 from https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/5030/.
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