Essay Example on Spartan Hegemony: Unsuccessful & Athenian Alliance/League Difference

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  3
Wordcount:  676 Words
Date:  2023-03-02

1. Why was the Spartan hegemony unsuccessful? Give two reasons. In what two ways was the second Athenian alliance/league different from the first?

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The ignorance of Spartans in insisting that Thebes sign only for themselves and not for all Boiotians. They later created an attack against Boiotia. In the battle of Leuktra in early July, the Spartan army was beaten by Thebans led by Epaminondas. If they had agreed on the terms of the treaties by Thebes, their hegemony would have continued to exist. Secondly, the Thebans, Corinthians, and the Athenians formed an alliance which caused the opposition of the Spartans. The partnership at most indicated a stop to hostilities, and a strong coalition proved challenging to break as they fought against the Spartans.

2. Choose two ways that Plutarch presents the Persians and their king. How do these compare to the idea that Herodotus gave the Persians (be specific)? What attitudes seem to have developed towards the Persians since their invasions of Greece?

3. Take two episodes from Alexander's behavior in battle (either in Greece or Asia Minor) and rewrite them to show that they represent potentially harmful, rather than positive, qualities. How do these differ from other generals that we have read about in Herodotus and Thucydides? (225 words)

When Alexander was pursuing Darius, he found him almost dying and helped him with water; in the end, Darius died, and Alexander caught Bessus, who had murdered the king. He made sure that Bessus was gravely mutilated. Also, he brought the tops of trees down and then attached two parts of Bessus' body to it, and the trees were let go tearing off his body. It was an inhuman act compared to his good deeds. Alexander took a spear from one of his guards and stabbed Cleitus on the back. Cleitus fell with pain and crying out loudly, and Alexander's anger cooled down. He came to his senses and saw the disbelief in himself. The guilt almost caused him to stab himself but was stopped by the Persians. He even set free Croesus freed from being burnt and appointed him as a counsellor for Cyrus.

The comparison of Alexander behavior is reflected when Cyrus came up with the idea to burn innocent boys as a test to the gods, a decision he later regretted but it was too late. Unlike Alexander, he felt the guilty but the fire could not be extinguished on time.

Alexander believed that he could tame an unmanageable and wild horse. He told his father that he could manage the horse and even went ahead and agreed on a bet if he loses. He was confident of the capability of taming the horse. He managed to command the horse and ended up riding him. Secondly, Alexander advertising his relation to Zeus Ammon by creating distinctive feature of the god`s which was the horns of a ram as his own symbol. The comparison of the Cyrenean coin showing the god and coin showing Alexander profile has the horn displayed prominently. Thirdly, When he visited Siwah, the priest greeted him at the oracle as the "son of Zeus." Plutarch explains the greeting as it might have been a political plot by Alexander to insinuate that Philip was his human father but Zeus was his divine father. Others viewed Alexander as a megalomaniac relating his visit as a mean of flirting with divinity.

Alexander believed himself to be divine and even thought he was destined to rule over mankind. When he went or the shrine of the high priest Ammon, he inquired about his own empire and the destiny to rule over the mankind. The priest told him that he will be granted his wishes. He even stated that God is the father of all mankind but it is noble and best to be made God`s own by himself. On another occasion he was asked by Anaxarchus if he could make the sound like thunder since he was the son of Zeus but he replied and said that he did not want to scare them.

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Essay Example on Spartan Hegemony: Unsuccessful & Athenian Alliance/League Difference. (2023, Mar 02). Retrieved from

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