Peacekeeping is one of the essential conflict management tools that most countries and states use to avoid the possible effects of conflicts, such as loss of lives and injustice cases of killing. The international community body organ, United Nations (UN), formed immediately after the Second World War was explicitly meant to promote peace in all the nations of the world by creating a strong linking relationship between them to encourage other activities like multilateral business and globalization.
The organizations have got the mandate to ensure that all of its member countries are protected from war occurrences. As a result, whenever any war is suspected to occur or to occur in a given country or region, the UN has the powers to deploy their peacekeepers to the missions to maintain law and order. For a mission to be considered adequate, evaluations must be done at the end of the entire process to ascertain that it decreased the intensity of the violence and lowered the existence of chaos or it has protected the targeted individuals from attack and dangers. The peacekeepers are usually the troops from the countries registered in the organization small countries being no exception.
Typically, many small countries prefer deploying their defense troops in missions to enhance security. One of the significant reasons that facilitate this is the fear of attack by other nations and states or the fear of violence cases in the countries. Because of weak security personnel, many of these countries fear that they may be unable to handle occasions of serious offenses when they arise, thus may need external support. One of the reasons that make this country have this particular belief is that; 1. Some states, like the westerners, are near oceans and seas and thus are so prone to terrorism. Poor financial stability of a country is also a significant determinant that drives many small nations to deploy their troops into missions under the United Nations umbrella. Because they fear that, funding their security agents or buying the necessary security tools to fight the terrorists may be a problem. As a result, they decide to join the United Nations and participate in the deployment to the missions to promise them for future security assistance.
Fear of Terrorism
Terrorism and foreign policy is an essential aspect to consider, especially determining how prone a particular state or nation is towards exposure to terrorism cases. Previous studies have indicated that stable countries like the United States have got a higher potential to fight terrorisms due to the more substantial investment in security departments. The national security strategies of US states that by investing less in the security, the department is merely allowing those who wish to intrude in and cause conflicts, relaxed time to do so.
US have made historic investments in the US military to help the country ensure that the army continues to remain the superiors and the superpower worldwide, as Trump stated in the year 201 (Trump, 2017) Moreover, before Trump explained that, one of the former presidents George Bush also made a world record in the year 2003, when he decided to allocate about $59.3 billion to help in improving the security agencies to protect the country from attack of terrorism and maintain peace within the states (Chan, 2003).
Having this understanding, many small countries have taken advantage of the enormous investments and have thus bumped into the UN to enable the get secured with the UN military where US military soldiers happen to dominate. For instance, in the year 2016, Libya, one of the developing countries in Africa was facing a content terrorisms attacks from the Islamic military soldiers from other neighboring countries. It is the American agencies under the leadership of President Donald Trump, who sent their military in coordination with the UN soldiers to help fight the terrorists and protect the lives of the Libya residents. In the process, the UN also picked some of the soldiers from other African and European countries to the similar mission to help in making the country peaceful.
Economic instability is another major cause for the deployment of troops into missions by the small countries. Primarily, economic growth for a given country is directly related to its political stability. The financial status of a given country can be used theoretically to predict for the stability of the country in terms of wars and attacks. The two concepts can be used interchangeably as the absence or presence of one lead to the occurrence of the other.
For the developing countries, it is so hard to fully finance their security departments in a manner that they can resist terrorism from their neighboring states. Countries like India which have got the highest population worldwide, and gained independence a long time ago, are still unstable in terms of their stability, possibly because, the economy is lower, and the GDO of the country is too little to fund all the essential organizations in the country and also the security departments (Kautsky, 1972). Similarly, many other small counties prefer joining h the UN embassy to get a boost whenever they experience attacks either internally or externally. To manage wars like terrorism, a country is required to have a stable economy, purchase all the relevant helicopters, guns, and other security requirements to make them fully equipped as the attackers. Failure to achieve this may make the terrorists kill the country's or state's soldiers, intrude inside the country and cause other attacks that may leave very many people died.
Political and Border Influence
A country's political internal conflict and border conflicts are among the significant determinants that have made motivated many small countries to send their troops to missions. Countries that are prone to political disputes because of the ruling and opposition parties prefer sending their troops to the UN missions to provide them with an assurance that whenever violence cases arise in future, they can always be given the confidence to cool the people temper and restore peace. In most situations, the activity is typically facilitated with either the ruling leadership who perform dictatorship. Thus, core the reason for seeking UN assistance by deploying soldiers into the missions, is usually to protect their interests and prevent the opposition from creating chaos in the country.
A typical example of such a country is Zimbabwe, in Africa, where there was a dictating president Robert Mugabe. The president was a dictator, who usually obtained UN support whenever the opposition tried to bring in post-violence conflicts. Another problem is the conflicts in borders. Some countries often fight because of natural features or other tourist attraction features which appear in borders. Lakes are a typical example of this (Ikejiaku & Dauda, 2011).
In conclusion, the ability of a small country to send its troops into the UN security missions is customarily determined with three major factors; fear of terrorist attacks by the neighboring terrorists, economic instability and finally the border conflicts and election violence. The main aim of doing all this is usually to maintain peace, protect the lives of residents, and protect people's properties as well.
Chan, J. L., (2003). Government accounting: an assessment of the theory, purposes, and standards. Public Money & Management, 23(1), 13-20. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-9302.00336
Ikejiaku, B. V., & Dauda, J. (2011). African Union, conflict, and conflict resolution in Africa: a comparative analysis of the recent Kenya and Zimbabwe conflicts. International Journal of development and conflict, 1(01), 61-83. Retrieved from https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2010269011000105
Kautsky, J. H., (1972). The political consequences of modernization (pp. 19-22). New York: Wiley. Retrieved from http://lifepdfpoul.com/the-political-consequences-of-modernization-john-h-kautsky-joining-the-digital-book-revolution.pdf
Trump, D. J., (2017). National security strategy of the United States of America. Executive Office of The President Washington DC Washington United States. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1043812
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