The aim of this work being to generate a best-oriented inquiry discussion, two perspectives for the analytical inquiry are essential. In the scientific part, the study of the most critical chemical and biological issues quoted as number four in the assignment priority questions has been observed. The question has raised other subjects that contribute to the scientific part, including; what are the morphological and anatomical analysis for cardiovascular disease? What are the impacts of the disease on the human body? Where or which parts does the disease affect? For the second part of the mathematical inquiry, the alarming issues brought by the disease is discussed through the formation of the following questions; how are the issues a problem? Which is the best way to analyze the points?. What social-economical proposal or theories best fit in explaining the problems? And what does the health stakeholders' statistics portray concerning the matter? This paper, therefore, is contributed by diverse and well-discussed aspects with relevant shreds of evidence.
Important Biological and Chemical Issues Related to the Disease
Cardiovascular disorder is a disease that involves the heart and correspondent blood vessels like the pulmonary artery nad coronary arteries like angina. The epidemiology of the disease varies from a patient to the other. The disease depends on the body mechanisms in the involvement of blood pumping and barriers of blood movements. Barriers include fats and proteins in the body. The condition is often referred to as a heart attack when the myocardial inflation is caused due to muscle depriving of the blood supply. Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of the disease; however, the rate of impact is increased by smoking tobacco through the problematic coverage mechanism that occurs in blood vessels. The progression of the disease is noticed by inflammation of arteries and myofilament proteins in the body. Cardiovascular disease affects the circulatory system as a whole. The extreme conditions brought about include heart failure, heart attack, vascular bursting, and blockage of blood flow. In most patients, the heart develops irregular beating rates that lead to chocking of circulatory cells and pars. The gaseous exchange system, which is part of the circulatory system, is profoundly affected as the air does not pass through the cell of arteries and veins in the lungs (Kathiresan & Srivastava, 2012). Some part of the body gets insufficient gases, and this leads to the formation of lactic acid due to the uneliminated carbon dioxide. The sensory and nervous system is also affected-the cardiovascular disease results in the stroke where the affected part is not responsive to touch and pain.
There are several genetic mapping of cardiovascular disease related to the causal variants in casual genes. For each SNP and locus mapped on a carrier's cell, a GWAS locus arises. Therefore for every patient or carrier, there is one cell out of a million cells that can genetically transmit the disease characteristics to the first generation of the casualty. There are linkages and genetic associations for cardiovascular disease. Some forms exhibit simple patterns of inheritance direct DNA sequence that has a low-density lipoprotein receptor gene with homozygous hypercholesterolemia. Others show it uncovered five kilobase exons responsible for the mutation (Kathiresan & Srivastava, 2012). There is a permanent loss of cells that results from cardiovascular disease through the production of cardiac hypertrophy in the cells. This hypertrophy disposes the cells to damage through viscosity roughness and exposure risks. The heart cannot regenerate new cells at the cell level. There is a neuro-humoral biochemical process that has enhanced calcium signals on-site of a suppressed HF.
Biological and chemical substances causes of artery clogs are the essential aspects of cardiovascular disease. Fatty materials, blood substrates, cellular waste, cholesterol, and other solid or non-blood materials will create clogs after building up in the endothelial cell linings. The cell lining found on aeries will afterwards have a plaque that will result in the formation of a block cover. The cover will inhibit the gaseous exchange of biological process and lead to a heart attack due to the starvation of oxygen and the internal concentration of carbon dioxide (Cannon, 2013). Cholesterol as a factor will combine with triglycerides and substances found in the chemistry of stimulators like tobacco to accelerate atherosclerosis. Therefore both chemistry and biological aspects are essential in the study of cardiovascular disease.
Economic Issues Related to Cardiovascular Disease
The primary issue of cardiovascular disease is the economic disparity that arises from poverty. Low-class patients suffering from Cardiovascular Disease tend to receive inadequate health care services as they cannot afford catering for better treatment services and, at the same, have resources to spend on healthful living. The cardiovascular disease requires high medical care, which is not the case as diets are also not equitably affordable in a society that has inadequate economic systems and low incomes (Gheorghe et al., 2018). The estimated cost for Cardiovascular Disease scanning rages between $500 and $1500. This amount is far much expensive. The other cardiac diseases are a bit cheaper. The number of death s increases gradually. Besides the disparity is an issue of poor knowledge- most of the patients and groups of the society bein affected by the disease are unwillingly not to the concept on how to face the disorder (Institute of Medicine, 2018).
Furthermore, most cases are not prevented- as mentioned; this is due to poor dieting, lack of exercises and inappropriate lifestyles. In the United States of America, a total of death and unfortunate healthcare disparity related to economic differences was reported to increase gradually. Out of 10 patients who could not afford the best treatment for cardiovascular disease, seven were from low-income families. Over three-quarters of the deaths, reported are a result, unaffordability to health care (WHO, 2017). In the worldwide impact as published by WHO, out of the 17 million premature deaths, cardiovascular disease contributes to a percentage of 7%, which is a high number, and it is due to poverty hat the condition is so impactive. Countries in the 3rd world-class levels are the most prone areas for this disparity, as 37% of the total deaths occur from heart diseases. In first-class countries, 40 % of the entire cardiovascular disease is a result of economic challenges in attaining healthcare (Institute of Medicine, 2018).
In the determination of the issues related to cardiovascular disease, random evaluation is essential. Through this method, the number of disparity cases is evolved from data attained from field questionnaires and real case evidence. Quantitative analysis is the best in the determination of the exactness of the trend and impact of the economic disparity experienced (Gheorghe, et al., 2018). The quantitative analysis will involve the comparison of various economic effects of heart diseases with cardiovascular disease using graphs and tables. An example is americas2017 disparity issue trend data.
2017 NCD category Minimum patients/100 people Median patients/100 people Maximum patients/100 people Disparity cases Cost per Episode
Coronary heart disease 1.46 10.02 27.83 5 $200-$800
Chronic heart failure 5.59 9.41 56.98 3 $300-$700
Cardiovascular Disease 8.98 13.57 88 20 $500-$1500
(Institute of Medicine, 2018)
The issues require a methodology of solving them. The microeconomic approach is the best way to explain the issue of disparity. This theory focuses on the economic performance of society based on why and what reasons. The method determines why it is not easy to afford the best healthcare services and the reasons for such kind of lifestyles (Institute of Medicine, 2018). The theory also integrates the financial ratio theorem in identifying the effects of the disease in terms of budgetary allocation of resources to fight the disorder on local country levels. Microeconomics works assumption criteria that each adult has a responsibility to cater to a specific ratio of children and another ration for the aged. Following this principle of dependency levels, the theory explains the reason for the disparity of being a poor distribution of income and inappropriate personal expenditure (Institute of Medicine, 2018). Macroeconomics theory is also best in that it will approach the global economic disparity issues and compare the trend in various degrees. Macroeconomics also identifies and explains the disparity issue with the approach of national income to the medical care expenditure in terms of cardiovascular drugs and preventive education measures. Following this, the economic valuation in the disparity of economic currency flow and its determinants is used. The theory typically uses the principle of life and economic equivalence among the employed, unemployed, trading and non-trading individual. In explanation, the economic disparity occurs due to lack of per capita average.
The biological and chemical factors are two sets that can never be separated. In cardiovascular disease, there is an excellent link between the biological portion and the chemical influence of the body cells of an infected person. Biologically the condition is very active, and changes in terms of composure and component of chemical triggers occur and therefore requires attention. This inquiry paper has covered the issues and concluded that for scientific success inquiry for the paper, the genetic, physiological and epidemic points are vital points to note and requires capable research. In the mathematical perspective, proper data can only be attained if the method of data harvesting is sufficient. Therefore this paper presents qualitative data method as the best with the support of two economic theories that are essential to the success of this inquiry results- without the approaches; an inquiry would be hectic. The mathematical perspective has utilized the use of tables as a method of making the research practical and real.
Cannon, B. (2013, January 31). Cardiovascular Disease: Biochemistry to behaviour. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/493S2a
Gheorghe, A., Griffiths, U., Murphy, A., Legido-Quigley, H., Lamptey, P., & Perel, P. (2018, August 6). The economic burden of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090747/
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Preventing theGlobal Epidemic of Cardiovascular Disease: Meeting the Challenges in DevelopingCountries. (2018, January 1). Development and Cardiovascular Disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45694/
Kathiresan, S., & Srivastava, D. (2012, March 16). Genetics of human cardiovascular Disease. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319439/
WHO. (2017, May 17). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Retrieved April 21, 2020, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
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