Segregation has had serious effects on African Americans for decades. The truth is that racial segregation stems from unconstitutional and forceful government policy, which requires a forceful public act to undo racial discrimination. The government is responsible for sponsoring racial, and thus federal government can come up with practical government actions to solve racial segregation. There are several remedies, for instance, Congress could outlaw the use of exclusionary zoning in suburbs that were previously segregated and bar such ordinances from being effected until the suburbs become full diverse.
Racial discrimination was prevalent during the 1920s at the time when the country was crippled in the Great Depression.
The Bronx Slave Market
The article is a primary source, and the author argues that the Bronx (a city in New York) was an infamous area for the slave market. The Bronx was the slave market, where slaves were being sold like commodities. The author posits the activity of the slave trade was the major business in New York. The author argues that many people were flooding the area due to escaping starvation, poverty, and discrimination in other states (Dubow, 2019). However, the desperate people were sold as slaves upon arriving in the city. Women were the easy target of slavery and were subjected to forced labor. It was during this period when the Great Depression was at its peak, and many people were desperate and hence could any job. However, the wealthy one used this as an opportunity to abuse the most vulnerable members of society.
Welfare in black and white
The article is a primary source, and the author explores the ideas and philosophy of W. E.B Du Bois, who was the champion of the rights of African-Americans. Bois strongly believed that segregation and organized race hared were still prevalent in the South even after the abolition of slavery in the United States. W.E.B Du Bois endorsed the reelection of Franklin Roosevelt because he believed that the President's policies were favorable to the rights of African-Americans. In seeking reelection, Roosevelt offered to introduce pragmatic programs that would enhance economic recovery (Dubow, 2019). He underscored the help of farmers and mortgages through the enactment of the Federal Housing Authority. The recognition of the grievances of workers was one of the critical reasons that compelled W.E.B Bois to support the reelection of Franklin Roosevelt. During his term in office as the President of the United States, Roosevelt was acknowledging and supporting the anti-discrimination efforts. For instance, he introduced favorable policies that saw the appointment of the people of color in his administration. He also gave courteous recognition to the colored presidents of Liberia and Haiti and the African-American guests at the White House.
However, in contrast, the Republican Party, the author argues, was working assiduously to ensure that the Whites dominated the administration in the South. The party was also working to foster segregation and discrimination in the region. Nevertheless, few days to the election, the 'Kansas City Plain Dealer' advised the Democratic party that they should not take the African-Americans' votes for granted (Lux, 2014). If the party wanted to win the support of the Blacks, the Democrats were to admit them to the Democratic Primaries and grant them equal opportunities as other people and hence exercise their voting rights. Additionally, Blacks were to be included in the state and local governments (Dubow, 2019). The government was also required to stop patronages in the North and disallow lynchers, segregation, Ku Klux, and injustices against the community. Further, the government of Roosevelt was needed to give the blacks equal education and employment opportunity and be granted political rights.
However, despite all these promises, the plan never materialized - the strong political power in the South was making things difficult. For instance, the Republicans made it impossible for the President to implement the anti-lynching bill. For example, 'The Civilian Conservation Corp's managers and supervisors were all whites, and none of them were African-Americans. It was an ironical move because the program was meant to champions for the rights of the blacks. Consequently, the program did not bring social security to the farm or domestic workers, of which category majority were blacks. Additionally, the population was excluded from hours and wage protection.
A central theme in two sources
Both two articles explore the issue of racial discrimination and how it was becoming prevalent during the Great Depression. The racial oppression tightened, and segregation escalated across the country, and as a consequent many African American leaders began opposing the governmental policies that were unfavorable to the African Americans (Connerly, 2015). For instance, W.E.B Du Bois was the leader who channeled the recognition of blacks' rights and fights against white privilege. White privilege refers to a set of immunities and advantages that benefits the white people in the society. Colonialism is discrimination or prejudice towards a particular individual or group of people because of their skin color. Based on the answers provided in the worksheet, it is evident that the white is considered a privilege. People who have white skin color enjoy more benefits compared to those of different skin color.
The white people are in high social standing compared to others in society. They receive more social privileges. It is a form of the stereotype that people in the community towards the light-skinned people. Currently, in the United States, there are cases of white privilege. The society considers presently white people to be more supreme compared to blacks. However, black people are more successful compared to blacks. There are racial issues within the United States. Still, they are not wholly rooted in White Supremacy or in favor of the combination of ethnic groups, which have been identified as "White." Different groups are disadvantaged across different circumstances, a fact which adds a level of complexity that rebels against the notion that one particular group has total dominance over all others, or can adequately serve as the leading cause for their dispossession (Connerly, 2015).
The sources also focus on how the New Deal, a program by President Franklin Roosevelt's administration, was supportive of the African Americans and sought to elevate their status in the society. However, the enacted policies and legislations continued to allow discrimination against the community. Racial discrimination and segregation were prevalent during the 120s and 1930s.
Racial segregation still tops several national problems. Inequality is prevalent within the education sectors, and there is also an increasing racial wealth gap where middle-class Americans live in rising home values neighborhoods while the same middle-class black Americans live in neighborhoods having stagnant values. Surprisingly, many believe that racial segregation is a result of "de facto," which links to a private activity like personal choices, own prejudice, income difference, and realtor discrimination.
Below is a perspective on how government policies in the US deliberately enforced and promoted residential racial segregation. The author argument demands a thorough reevaluation of US constitutional law since the courts have failed in their mandate to discover that racial segregation is as a result of "de facto," which links to a private activity like personal choices, own prejudice, income difference, and realtor discrimination but a byproduct of unconstitutional government activities. This explanation is the ultimate root cause of African Americans' problems in terms of concentration of the middle class and the poor into segregated residential neighborhoods. The author captures deep continuing practices and historical roots that grip the nation's most underprivileged citizens. The government needs to find a remedy for African-Americans.
Even though many individuals have, in the past decades, believed that racial segregation occurs due to "de facto" that links to private activity. Still, the government is the primary cause of racial discrimination through government policies. Rothstein notes that many individuals have in the past believed that private activity like personal choices, own prejudice, income difference, and realtor discrimination that cause middle-class suburbs to be unaffordable to a majority of African Americans. In other words, if African Americans were to have a high-income ability, then they could afford to live within the suburbs; hence, there would not be racial segregation. Therefore, past decades and current leaders believe that little can be done about racial discrimination since racial segregation comes about due to private activity and personal choices. However, a closer look reveals that racial segregation results due to previous and current government policies and has nothing to do with past or present generations. Racial segregation remedy will still narrow down to the leadership through government policies and not the generations. Racial segregation is a result of "de jure," government policies, and not "de facto," linked to private activity and personal choice.
Dubow, D. (2019). Racial segregation and the origins of apartheid in South Africa, 1919-36. Springer.
Connerly, C. E. (2015). " The Most Segregated City in America": City Planning and Civil Rights in Birmingham, 1920-1980. University of Virginia Press.
Lux, M. K. (2014). Care for the 'racially careless': Indian hospitals in the Canadian west, 1920-1950s. Canadian Historical Review, 91(3), 407-434.
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