Essay Example on Emotional Intelligence: Debates & Models

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1175 Words
Date:  2023-03-12

The article documented the status of emotional intelligence inside the human cognitive structure. Despite increased research and study in the category of emotional aptitude, there are still disagreements on psychological contrasts. There are modifications in the definition of expressive intelligence among scholars, and the descriptions are used differently in the development of various models. Some models define emotional aptitude as a combination of skills, while other models characterize emotional intelligence as a combination of character, inspiration, principles, and attitudes. The authors of the above article applied the set of ability definitions of emotional intelligence. Under the set of ability characterization, emotional intelligence is demarcated as the capacity to practice and reason about sensitive data, and it can only be measured by responsibilities that need this capability.

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The three goals of the study were per the criteria of emotional intelligence to be adopted as a single measure of information. First, the study examined the validity of the first-hand indication holds through the amended Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence theoretic model. The revised conceptual model had three emotional intelligence subcomponents that can merge to develop one primary psychological intelligence concept. The evaluation would then proceed to examine whether the combined factor of emotional intelligence can be considered as a group of knowledge by showing positive manifold and reflect in bi-factor models (Barchard & Hakstian, 2004). In conclusion, the study was to conclude on the authenticity and ability of emotional intelligence to be absorbed as an independent measure of information.

The study had 702 participants who were students from the second to the fourth years from various institutions in the United States. Four hundred fourteen of the participants were women. There were results from participants who were excluded from the data analysis process. The study excluded information gathered from participants who were physically impaired or had challenges with their eyesight and hearing abilities. Out of the possible 702 participants, the valid results considered were from 688 students, of which 405 of them were women. 81% of the students were between 18-22 years of age, with the participant's age limit ranging from 17-59 years. The participants were responsible for providing information about their ethnicity, and the results posted showed that 64% of the participants were white, 15% were black, 10% had a Hispanic origin, 4% were Asian, and the other ethnic backgrounds contributed to approximately 6%. The participants were recruited from 14 institutions across 11 states in the United States (MacCann et al. 2014). Five of the fourteen institutions offered two-year courses while the rest provided four-year courses. The participants engaged in an on-screen testing period in isolated classrooms in their various institutes. The test was approximately 8 hours long, and participants were allowed breaks during the assessment. The participants completed 15 cognitive tasks, and even though the tests were differentiated, the ordering products were similar across all participants.

The findings of the study supported the hypothesis that emotional intelligence meets and fulfills all the requirements to allow it to be deliberated as the second-order aspect in the CHC archetypal of aptitude. The study proved that the three primary mental abilities of emotional intelligence form one coherent concept. These psychic abilities include emotional perception, understanding, and management. There was proof the emotional intelligence was related to the ancient makers of intelligence, as was portrayed by the manifold in the zero-order correlation matrix. Finally, there was no evidence to show that expressive intellect represented a discrete classification of aptitude. There was overwhelming proof that sensitive intelligence is allied with a recognized form of cognitive abilities (Maloof & Murphy, 2006). This suggests that there should be control intelligence when evaluating the gains of emotional intelligence. Published outcomes obtained from the studies in the field indicate that demonstrative acumen can be used to predict the academic enactment and excellence of students, organizational success, and health results.

Studies conducted in this field of psychology regulate few forms of cognitive abilities, and their relevance and authenticity are rarely examined in consideration to various facets of intelligence. Considering that fluid intellectual and awareness of the participants could impact the outcomes of the tests conducted, it might be wise to regulate them as they are closely associated with emotional intelligence. The regulation may help obtain accurate emotional reactions and abilities rather than derive a conclusion from a general cognitive function (MacCann, 2010). The findings of the study may be biased as the researchers relied on the MSCEIT test series, which comprises two pointers for each construct of emotional intelligence. This was a limitation in the study because at least three indicators should define an optimum model. This limitation forced the researchers to make concessions to ensure that all the models attained convergence. There was also variation in the basis used for the MSCEIT and the 15 cognitive markers. The MSCEIT marks were classified centered on accord scores, while the 15 intellectual tags did not apply the same basis. The variation in the application might have resulted in the variance recorded in the results.

There was a limitation in the selection process as the participants who were selected to participate were attending either the community college or university. This sample population cannot accurately represent the population in the targeted age group because they were younger and more intelligent than their counterparts. It is known that different trajectories are derived from participants over their life span. The biases in the selection process creates a limitation as the results posted may differ in the study was conducted with a different sample (Cote & Miners, 2006).it is essential for a survey to selected a sample population that adequately represent the targeted population without bias or favor of one category.

The study was comprehensive and covered the basics of the classification of emotional intelligence within the existing intelligence framework. The study also documented detailed information about the tasks undertaken in the examination of emotional data in the case of individuals and group factors of intelligence. The review was comprehensive as it addresses issues that predecessor projects had not tackled, and it also created a foundation basis for researchers who will research the field. The CHC theory can be utilized within the emotional intelligence boundaries, and its utilization creates opportunities for studies on the sphere of human cognitive capabilities.


Barchard, K. A., & Hakstian, A. R. (2004). The nature and measurement of emotional intelligence abilities: Basic dimensions and their relationships with other cognitive ability and personality variables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(3), 437-462.

Cote, S., & Miners, C. T. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 1-28.

MacCann, C. (2010). Further examination of emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence: A latent variable analysis of fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 490-496.

MacCann, C., Joseph, D. L., Newman, D. A., & Roberts, R. D. (2014). Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of intelligence: Evidence from hierarchical and bifactor models. Emotion, 14(2), 358.

Maloof, S., & Murphy, K. (2006). A critique of Emotional Intelligence, What are the Problems and How can they be fixed.

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