Stage One: Response to Crime (1972-1976)
The overall trend was to provide victim services to address the rising crime rate. Many state and federal commission were formed to study misconduct and its penalties. This led to the establishment of the first government-funded victimization investigation and the law enforcement Assistance Administration(LEAA). By the 1974 womens' shelter were established in Denver Co. This was for those women that were battered. In 1975 a book was written by Frank Carrington that was of the current victims mishandling status in the criminal justice system. By 1974 the mental health providers had become a vital part of the victim healing process, and research on peer group support among others began
Stage Two: Polarization and Unstable Funding (1977-1981)
The overall trend in this time was the loss of financial gain and support in the victim movements. The resources became limited and numerous community-based, and nationally based programs began to compete with them. Several misunderstandings arose between the victim program and the criminal justice-based program. Many grassroots organizations formed and utilized the media actually to address the differences between criminal judicial system and the stigmatizing approach of the mental health system. Frank Carrington then created the crimes victims and legal advocacy institute in 1979. In 1981 Ronald Reagan became the first president to declare crime victims. Later on, a task force for improved treatment of crime victims.
Stage Three: Public Awareness 1982-1986
The overall trend in this time was the increased use of media by the revitalized victims movement hence increased public awareness. Programs were then established due to the growing funding of the programs. The movement greatly expanded and appears to be more sophisticated and with more formalized disciplined and change for growth for the next period.
Stage Four: Expanding Legislative Agenda (1987- 1991)
The main trends that occurred were the victim service funding, victim rights and law and order concerns. Advocates were able to exercise control and influence on some fronts. Bright and cohesive agendas that tackled victims' rights and law and order fears were achieved because the political efforts were more organized.
Stage Five: Profession and Advancing Advocacy (1992-Present)
The main trend in this juncture is professionalism. Most states have developed training guidelines, and also certification initiatives are underway in several states. Victimology curricula have established legal support components in addition to their skill.
Using the information in "Special Topics, Section 4, Campus Crime and Victimization"(Required Reading), compare and contrast victim services that are offered to campus crime victims. Consider the following questions:
QST 1: What is similar about the services offered and what is different?
- All services provided to victims of campus crime must ensure confidentiality at all times and when necessary. No information should be shared in any manner that links the incidence to the victim without his or her consent.
- Secondly, all the services offered to the victims could be done with levels of dignity. The victims should be provided services that are worthy and honorable.
- All services available to victims are timely. They The at the appropriate point in time without any manner of delay.
- All services offered are non-discriminatory. He regarding race, religion, gender, political, affiliation or any other form of discrimination whatsoever.
- All services available to the victims are readily available at all times. The services are not limited to specific times or do one need to incur any cost regarding currency in accessing the services.
- All services offered to ensure that there is adequate awareness of all the services that exist. A lot of public awareness is made concerning the existence of the services hence victims are well informed of where to seek help.
- Duration. Some services offered to the victims are long-term while others are short-term. The emergency services are only given to the victim on the short term while the rest is on a long-term basis.
- Cost. The services provide to the victims have different cost implications on the service providers which in this case is mostly the campus administration and the various donor agency in place
- The services also differ regarding content. Some services are physical, other are mental, emotional legal or even spiritual according to the crime one has experienced
- The services also depend on the type of offense one has experienced. Some crime are severe while others are not hence the urgency varies
QST 2. Do the services offer vary because of the population being served?
The services provided do not in whatsoever way vary because of the population being served. They are constant no matter the number of victims being addressed. Every person is entitled to equal treatment. Hence no discrimination and bias should be done even when the numbers of the victims are high.
QST 3. If you were asked to set up a victims assistance program for a college campus how would you do it? What specific services would you focus on? Why?
I would begin by identifying the necessary skills and resources that are needed in establishing the program. I would analyze and see the available resources that are required in creating the program. This is because for a program to run well it needs both financial and human resources. Secondly, I would they consider the location of the service center in which it should not be far away from the target group. I would then put in place the means of marketing and publicizing the program to the target group by creating awareness.
The specific services I would offer would range from
- Emergency services. This is very key in any program as most crimes that occur are not usually anticipated by the victim hence the need for quick response
- Counseling and long-term support for the victims. Counseling is a very important aspect of any program that offers post crime support to victims. Because of the traumatizing effects of the crimes committed against the victims.
- Survivor support groups to the victims. the policy to quicken the healing process in the victims that have been affected. a also a good way to boost the self-esteem of the victims as they can talk to each other and encourage oneself.
- Information and resources. The program will offer the necessary information and resources needed to know what to do when confronted with such incidences.
Lastly, it would But on educational events, presentation, and training on interpersonal violence.
Finn and Lee (1997). Give the characteristics of a good program as
Well outlined. This means it should clearly indicate what its supposed to do.
- It should be reliable
- It should clearly define its scope of operation
- It should be comprehensive
- It should be informative
- It should be comfortable for the provider
- The guideline was still adhered to in the campus crime programs.
a. Discuss what conflicts will arise over whether to arrest or not arrest a domestic violence offender without a mandatory arrest policy
severity of the crime committed. This conflict will arise especially when the crime committed a minor one. This is because some people may deem it as a family issue that can be solved internally.
The presence of children. The presence of children in the act of crime may make it hard to carry out an arrest to the victim especially when the person in question has an active affiliation with them.
The state of the affected victim. When there is no clear evidence of injuries then making an arrest not sure because of lack of substantial evidence.
The extent of violation of the law is also an important aspect in determining arrest without a warrant. When there is clear proof of breach of the law, the arrest is clear, but when there is none, it makes it difficult to carry out an arrest.
Victims' preference for arrest. When its clear the victim does not prefer arrest, then it becomes difficult to make an arrest on the person in focus.
The mental stability and the soberness of the offender regarding drug and substance abuse may also either deter arrest or not.
b. Address the need for an extended definition of what constitutes a family
the concept of a household has only been limited only to blood, marriage, and adoption and in some other instances like survey residence. This definition needs to be expanded because of the following reasons.
Homosexual relationships are taking shape in our society today. This necessitates the need for change in the definition because so far this has not been captured in the definitions.
Cohabiting has become rampant among many youngsters. There is also need for this to be addressed in the concept of family.
Rape has been encountered between children and their step parents, and this also needs to be dealt to capture the relation of stepfamilies in the definition.
The rate of domestic violence has been on the rise in the previous decade hence the need to expand the definition of family.
With the current state of things, the family will therefore not always have the biological component hence the need to extend the definition to capture a lot.
The concept of family is one that varies greatly across time and space, and there is a need to obtain it across the different institutes that exist
unmarried couple without children have been considered as a family in the society today. This is not captured in the current definition of a family.
c. Describe the kinds of conflicts that will be created if one is to enforce a must arrest domestic violence policy.
A willingness by the victim to give up substantial legal rights. The victim may be willing to give up his/her constitutional rights to protect the offender.
Escalated violence next time. The arrest partner may hold a grudge against the victim hence intensify the crime in the next act.
Procedural challenges posed by the arrest. There might be a long procedure, in the long run, making the assault seek more information on how to protect her/himself, and the evidence may also be tampered with.
The state of the family may also arise conflict in the case where the arrest is a sole breadwinner in the household.
Discriminatory consequences encountered. This is because women are mostly the victims of domestic violence in case this is not it then arrest might not be considered in some cases.
Mandatory arrest is also not valid due to the concept of recidivism. This is very rampant in domestic violence.
d.State the sort of assessment you think is imperative for an officer to make when deciding whether to make a domestic violence arrest.
The police need to make out the history of the violence in the family. This would help come up with a proper intervention point.
The officer needs to assess the number of victims on site and also determine those that are at risk and those not at risk.
The officer needs to assess the victims, and their injuries incurred and decide to in case there is one who needs immediate medical attention.
The officer needs to assess the past criminal record of the offender and determine
The personnel should identify the criminals accessibility to weapons and the frequency of availability. This would ascertain the state of the situation at hand
The officer should assess the cause of the violence. If the cause is severe or minor.
a. Describe how the HEALS program works.
Dr. Stonsey is a psychologist from Maryland who tak...
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