Ernest Becker an American cultural anthropologist and interdisciplinary philosopher contributed greatly to the current works of psychology. Through his works, Becker was preoccupied with understanding human nature and why they do what they do including evil and good. He used various materials extracting his ideas from previously developed works of social scientists, theologians, and humanists like Dewey and Freud. According to him the existential, and social psychological state human beings was communally focused, reflective on self and self-interpretive in a bit to find importance and purpose in light of their immortality and demise (Martin, 2016).
Becker's contemplation recommended that the objective for people and the whole network was to abuse both socially and singular improvement. He encouraged in one of his speculations that the longing and inspiration for human conduct is our organic need to control the basic fundamental tension, to prevent the fear from claiming demise. Amid his lifetime, (1924-1974) he established on the Freudian model of identity structure. Altogether disappointed with the nineteenth century model of science which swarms the Freudian model, he pushed toward an assessment of human mental changing perspectives in which a response to death and mortality substituted sexual and forceful impulses as the major premise of mental, enthusiastic and mental inspirations.
Becker also noted that the derivation of all evil lies in the self-centeredness of human beings pursuing the protection of their own existence in the light of their mortality. This according to him is an indispensable facet of human nature. Realizing such ills and evils made Becker out of his concern for future human society develop the means to understanding such needs. In his work, he developed a deeper perspective model that views the complexity of human nature and conditions that he referred to as his mature work.
He built up his hypothesis of wickedness by looking at societies as unethical behavior ventures which when jeopardized by others could prompt dangerous acts or considerably murder. Through his investigation, he came to trust that our indiscriminating, insentient adherences our societies and emblematic importance frameworks will proceed to discharge huge dangerous dimensions and elevated amounts of insidiousness. In this manner he substituted confidence preservation with the standard of eternality endeavoring as the cornerstone of his hypothetical proof. He, nonetheless, did not preclude the confidence support guideline but rather he rather reprioritized and repositioned it with standards of the human battle for significance and brevity.
Becker was a post-Freudian researcher who really seen individuals as more star social than hostile to social. The most extraordinary Becker's post-Freudianism, was the manner by which he expanded Freud's idea of the psychoanalytic change to portray every single human association. From the snapshot of birth despite the fact that in life we predicament ourselves to the requests of the world by protecting ourselves in all perspectives particularly mentally, candidly and profoundly with the conviction of something which speaks to a higher power than humankind. He further clarified that we must choose between limited options instead of to live inside the general elements of changes. We can go to the truth and comprehension of the idea of our changing connections and to gradually culture ourselves to change protests that are more useful than destructive. Utilizing the Becker's all-inclusive origination of progress as a hermeneutical to for understanding our life towards death causes us make out our requirement for power and its frameworks of consolation. For him, it was unavoidable that our proceeding with death uneasiness shapes chivalrous transference questions and uncovers us to social mortality ventures.
The rule of everlasting status battle maintains that all people search for interminability, in any event in a few types of significance and relate to convictions of self-face they accept would offer this eternality. All through ever, to counter this hesitant being, individuals have concocted social orders comprising of social standards, conventions, and ceremonies. Having confidence in specific practices, societies, and establishments that give significance and look to adjust the feelings of trepidation that we have for unimportance and downfall. He utilizes this battle for mortality to disclose our solid connections to our societies.
This was a development of the Sigmund Freud's theory of personality. According to Freud, the human mind develops from an interaction of what he calls the fundamental of the human mind (Freud, 2000). The id, the ego, and the superego. The conflicting nature of all these structures and the effort to find a balance of what each desire determine how we behave. According to this understanding, Becker came to the realization that this conflict further leads human beings to desire mortality. It is also through this concept he came up with the evil perception that human beings do evil due to the preceding desires in their conscious and non- conscious minds. Becker's dark turn was an initiation of the theory of evil which came into full view as an acceptance of the great heaviness of human demands. A remarkable versatile sharp malice which imperils our most esteemed illumination ventures including our keenness and religious convictions swinging them to other people and ourselves. Our solitary would like to agreeable conjunction is a sort of intergalactic chivalry that will convey to official of the romanticized sociology and crafted by religion a factor that will require a genuine and earnest encounter with our present condition, nature, and constraints at both common and individual dimension.
Erich Fromm who is additionally a Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst who proposes a hypothesis of identity dependent on two major needs, the requirement for opportunity and the requirement for having a place (Fromm and Pious, 2014). He was trained in classical Freudian models but he developed his own in time. He suggests that although man has attained freedom, he has done so from the terms of the society, yet they still have a strong desire to be affiliated by others. He finds his identity in associating with the society. He, unlike Becker, suggests that people develop certain personalities and styles of life based on anxiety created by the feeling of isolation. According to Fromm, four of the personalities created by human beings in this light are unproductive oriented while just one is product oriented. Character develops from both our genetic orientation as well as from learning experiences from the societies we live in, people we interact with from school and other places like home. He further explains that character is almost impossible to change, however being aware of our tendencies and having a commitment to change, it could be achieved.
The most important works of Fromm in totality are believed to rest on the concept of social science as an endeavored synthesis of the crucial ideas of both Marx and Freud. In his writings and a discussion on Freud and Marx works in 1962 he offers a ground upon which to rebuild a problematic which is independent following the interpretation of the work. He then formulates problems clear to his own understanding and goes forth to solve it. According to him, it is impossible to separate moral philosophy from social science. Entirely in his work, he encourages the morally conscious social scientist defending and dedicated to life rather than social sciences focused on death.
He provides a work that entirely tries to find out the nature of evil and how likely it is to develop a systematic analysis of evil that is once sociological and clinical. Fromm's greatest aim was clinical and structural evil and defines the extent to which pathological senses are inherent to man. It also shows how far it is it institutionally determined how the two solves the issue.
His character description like that of Becker springs from the desires that lie within the non- conscious being. He developed these characters from the Freud's psychoanalytical theories closely studying and understanding the patterns of human beings. The receptive character type is mostly characterized by the constant. He suggests that this kind of people lacks confidence in their abilities and that they have a difficult time making personal and other decisions. Persons who grow up in environments that are overbearing and controlling Erich hold that they grow up to have the same personality traits.
Exploitative character type is willing to lie, cheat, and manipulate others to get what they need and fulfill their need to belong. On the other hand, according to Fromm the hoarding type who are usually insecure, cope with their insecurity by not parting with anything. They are said to care more about their material possession rather than other people. The marketing character type view relationships in light of what they can get or gain from the relationship. Productive type is people who channel negative feelings and energy in having something productive and beneficial for them. Productive orientation is a healthy way of life. It is here that life's full penitential is achieved.
Fromm was associated with creating huge numbers of Freud's thoughts including the Oedipus complex the life and demise senses and the charisma hypothesis. Fromm trusted that society and culture have a critical factor in individual human advancement. He says that the basic reason for a man in life is to bring forth himself. To abuse his potential and that the hugest result of his exertion is his identity. He likewise had significant commitments to the Humanistic brain research where he recommends that life is generally a logical inconsistency in that human are a piece of nature but then separate from it. This contention is the beginning of indispensable existential requirements including connections, imagination, personality, and the outskirt of introduction. He looked to comprehend the law of society and that which administers the life of a unique individual. He needed to see reality in the Feud's ideas rather than those which really required correction. He did likewise with Marx's hypothesis lastly, he touched base at a combination which pursued from the acknowledgment and the investigate of both.
Karl Marx has contributed to the current works of sociology and political sciences. He has developed various theories both economical and philosophical. This has a central issue being that the existence of a real individual man who is what he is, and from whose nature stems and opens itself in history. He sees a man incompleteness as belonging to a particular society as well as a social class. He depends upon this social class for growth but he is also a captive of the same society. This echoes the findings of Fromm as stated earlier. He suggests that the man has faith in a man, and in his capacity to liberate himself, find his potential abilities and utilize them in the process to liberate himself from the society and his thinking.
Freud, S. A. (2000). The origins of psychoanalysis. London: Imago.
Fromm, E., & Pious. (2014). To have or to be. The psychic foundations of a new society: To Have Or to Be? New York: Row Publishing Firm.
Martin, J. (2016). Ernest Becker and Stanley Milgram: Twentieth-century students of evil." History of psychology vol 19 (1), 3-19.
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