First Stage of Developing Any Research Study
A research study is an elaborate document of study that explains the type of study to be carried out and clearly lays out a firm foundation for the study. Types of study designs include experimental, semi-experimental, correlational, descriptive, meta-analytic, and review. A research study details the question of research, the hypotheses, the dependent and independent variables, and the experimental design. Sometimes the data collection methods to be used and the plan of analysis of statistics are elaborated. A research study is the framework upon which the research is based. This paper shall critically examine the first stage of developing any research paper by looking at two articles; Evolutionary psychology and business ethics research and empirical business ethics research and paradigm analysis.
State the Purpose of the business research for each article
The research study by Sefa Hayibor and David M. Wasieleski pursues to explain evolutionary psychology (Wasieleski & Hayibor, 2009). It also determines to elucidate the way it contributes to the research of business ethics. Not only does the theory summarize natural selection and the theory of evolution, but it goes ahead to strike an understanding of the use of the concepts of evolution in psychology so as to propose alternative explanations of the behaviors that are relevant to ethics in business. Some of these ethical behaviors include cooperation, reciprocity, and social exchange.
The Empirical Business Ethics research and paradigm analysis seeks to fill the gap that exists in the debate concerning the appropriate basis for the philosophy for research in the field of ethics in business (Brand, 2009). It supposes that there exists a vacuum in research in the field of social sciences touching on ethics in business despite there being many paradigm wars in the field of social sciences. The article appeals to the rarity of the consideration of paradigm issues and the occasional references that are made to issues that are conventionally deemed paradigm. It makes direct references to the field of ethics in business that is growing fast.
The Research Question
On the one hand, the study of Evolutionary psychology is of the opinion that organizations, individuals, and groups are influenced by common natural processes of evolution in a way that evolutionary psychology can be applied at multiple stages of evolution (Wasieleski & Hayibor, 2009). The study aptly suggests a stunted kind of growth in terms of what we have learnt to be ethical or unethical behavior. This phenomenon is despite the remarkable achievements and the extensive efforts by the various scholars in cultivating knowledge about morality and moral behavior (Wasieleski & Hayibor, 2009). The study points out scholars who have looked to neuroscience in a bid to achieve an explanation of the human behavior. The research supposes that the researchers of empirical ethics must make fundamental adjustments in the overall approach of research.
On the other hand, the Empirical business Research and Paradigm analysis is keen and maintains the pivotal role that paradigms play in forming the inquirers inquiry. They maintain that no one can carry on with the question of inquiry without clearly spelling out the paradigms that guide his or her inquiry (Brand, 2009). The research curtly suggests that the multi disciplinarian nature of the research in academics research is to blame for the lack of a shared research methodology. The research suggests a possibility of the subject being engaged with from within a very wide range of different disciplines despite the fact that researchers need to consult different schools of thought. The research suggests that the diversity many researches portray is hugely influenced by the researchers own disciplinary background as opposed to the openness of the multiplicity portrayed by the theoretical framework of the research (Brand, 2009).
The dependent and independent variables
The study of evolutionary psychology looks into details the contribution that is likely to occur to the study of organizational ethics from a unique distinctive approach (Wasieleski & Hayibor, 2009). It seeks to understand ethical behavior in the terms of the evolutionary approach. The research relies upon an approach that is evolutionary to provide assumptions that are underlying regarding the human behavior that can be employed in the research of business ethics. The approach is at par with the efforts to use evolutionary theories in biology to explain the sciences of organization. The research assumes that the fact that the human race is affected by the history of the evolution of our species, it naturally follows that we can expect to find clues to the behavior within organizations in the theories of evolution. The truth of this is solely dependent on the accuracy of the theory at hand (Wasieleski & Hayibor, 2009).
On the other hand, Empirical business Research and Paradigm analysis refers to the attitudes of the undergraduate students, and the cross-cultural business ethics (Brand, 2009). Examples from these schools of thought are what play out to the entirety of the paper. The article appeals to the lack of a topology and the need for one and therefore seeks to fulfill a need in the field of ethics in business. The research comes up with a table of comparison of the variables and the constants. It tabulates the comparisons of epistemological, ontological, and methodological assumptions in the sense of business research for business ethics (Brand, 2009). The paper assumes that the diversity in business ethics research is compromised due to the varied disciplinary backgrounds of the researchers undertaking the research. It alludes to the high likelihood of the legal academics and philosophers to contribute to debates on business ethics.
Brand, V. (2009, June). Empirical Business Ethics Research and Paradigm Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(4), 429-449. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40295103
Wasieleski, D. M., & Hayibor, S. (2009, October). Evolutionary Psychology and Business Ethics Research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 19(4), 587-616. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27755312
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