Assignment Example on Health Program Planning and Evaluation

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  3
Wordcount:  602 Words
Date:  2022-07-20

What are the key characteristics of the social model?

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The social model of health is a conceptual framework for improving health and well-being founded on the recognition of health as a function of a wider range of other factors. For example, the model is based on the understanding that individual health is influenced by individual, interpersonal, organizational, social as well as environmental and socio-political factors. The main argument of the social model of health is that it is important to get a deeper understanding of the health problems and not focus only on the bio-physiological factors and anatomy. Understanding the interactions that influence the complex cities of human experiences is important in developing a care plan that produces optimal community health outcomes.

The main characteristics of the social model of health include five key features including:

  • The fact that individual health is improved or hindered by the social context because the social context including gender, class, and ethnicity influences health and wellbeing.
  • The second characteristics of the model are that the human body is social, psychological and biologics at the same time.
  • The third characteristics are that the health is also influenced by cultural factors that vary from one culture to another.
  • It is also mounded on the argument that health is political because the policies affect health and wellbeing.

Explain the differences between validity and reliability?

Validity is used in relations to measuring instrument as it determines the degree to which the scales can measure what it was designed to measures. On the other hand, reliability refers to the degree to which the measurements used can produce consistent results or outcomes.

In what ways might you write or develop objectives to minimize under inclusion or over inclusion?

Under inclusion refers to the situation in which a few participants are reached and included in a program while over inclusion refers to the situation in which the non-targeted members which do not meet the inquisition criteria are included in a program. To minimize under inclusion and over inclusion, it is important to clearly define the inclusion criteria's and if the attainable sample is small, the sample space is increased. Addition, using the process theory to increase the sample space can help in improving the under inclusion while reducing the sample space can help in minimizing over inclusion.

What is the difference between process and effect objectives?

Process objectives mainly correspond with the actual process under evaluation. The process objectives include the activities being implemented to realize specific aims. On the other hand, the effect objectives correspond with the outcomes. It follows that the effect objectives is used to evaluate or assess and verify the effect of the project. Effect objectives are mainly used for impact assessment.

For effect objectives at each level of the pyramid, what sources of data might be commonly used for establishing targets?

The effective objectives for the enabling service level of the pyramid focus on changes in behaviors and aggregates such as students in a school setting. The source of data would, therefore, be from the local school setting, the community need assessment would be useful (Issel & Wells, 2017). At the population service level of the pyramid, the effective objectives would focus on the outcome and the evaluation would be based on the national data. Finally, at the infrastructure level of the pyramid, the focus is on the efficiency and effectiveness of the service and the pared mean benchmark would be the source of data (Issel & Wells, 2017)


Issel, L., & Wells, R. (2017). Health program planning and evaluation (1st ed.). Burlington, Massachusetts, United States: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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