Banjo, A. (2011). Hosting mega-sport events, expectations and perceptions: a review: sport and tourism. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 17(3), 416-428.
The article of the African Journal for the physical health education recreation and dance seeks to evaluate and assess the expectations and the perceptions of different categories of people about the hosting of main sporting activity in the country or city (Banjo, 2011). The research problem under consideration whether the host nation experiences significant changes to the economic aspects after and before the events.
The objective of the research is to evaluate the effects of the key occasions on the tourism and the economic sectors of the host nation or region of the sports event. The perception about the event provides an implication about the impact of the occasions.
The article executed the assessment using the happiness of the residents of the hosting nation of athletics dealings. The author, however, fails to describe in details how the experience of the Olympics in Europe promoted the happiness of the citizens. The author further states that the medal counts could also be a factor in determining the impact of the mega sports event (Banjo, 2011). The article fails to clearly show the survey that the author mentions and how the medals translate o the benefits and disadvantages of the activities.
The article uses survey on two major sporting events in different countries. The author is strategic in picking the FIFA World cup and the Olympics to represent the occasions. World cup and Olympics are statistically the main events globally and would represent other sports experiences. The author uses data from the internet, archives and sports information institutes to study the impact of the sports occurrences.
The survey concerning the host nations of the Olympics reveals that the mega-events have social, economic and environmental effects. The article statistically indicates the percentage s of the locals to represent the perception towards the hosting of the events. The study on the Olympics distinctively shows that the residents were positive and welcoming to playing as the hosts (Banjo, 2011). Although the article involved the factors of development that the Olympics can have on the nation, the author fails to describe in details with examples how the Olympics influenced urban growth. There is also a survey on the view of the foreign individuals about the mega event which also gives an account of the possible impacts on the aspects of the nation.
Concerning the World Cup events in the various hosting nation, the article distinctively illustrates the negative and the positive influences of the activities which indicated a positive attitude from the residents. The impact is even made clear by assessing the perception of people before and after the games to determine whether the effects are stable. The tourism is one of the main sectors that experienced improvement due to the sports programs. The research on 412 tourists revealed the significance of the World Cup in South Korea and Japan on the tourism level.
Despite the impacts of the mega-sports events, the nature of the host nation also contributes to the outcome of the activities. The beauty and the ability to attract individuals from other countries would determine the resultant effect of the events. For instance, the author cites Germany World Cup of 2002 during which the center of attraction for a majority of the visitors was the nature of Germany and not the tournament.
Ma, S. C., Ma, S. M., Wu, J. H., & Rotherham, I. D. (2013). Host residents' perception changes on major sport events. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(5), 511-536.
Shang Chun, Shang Min, Jih and Ian (2013) in the article describing the variations in the perceptions of the hosts on the main sports occasions seek to determine the homogeneous opinions clusters within a particular population of study the analysis concerning the opportunities and the insights of the effects of the events. The article in the introduction states that the mega-events result in long-term positive and negative impacts (Ma et al. 2013). The article in the literature review gives instances where governments have struggled to win bids to host the sports activities with the expectation of benefiting in the economic, social and environmental sectors.
To investigate the impact of the mega-sports events, the author describes the methods to evaluate the perception and the expectations of the host residents and the visiting individuals. The article distinctively describes the main theme of the study as to know the people's views and perception of hosting the mega-events to justify the effective occasions. The methodology appropriately investigates and evaluates the Kaohsiung and the 2009 world Olympic Games as a case study to reveal the perception of the host citizens. The article identifies the use of various techniques; the exploratory determinant analysis, confirmatory aspect analysis, two-step grouping and discriminant exploration were relevant in analyzing data (Ma et al. 2013). The author promotes the accuracy of the result by investigating the impacts at three levels: - pre-event, post-event and during the occasions. The use of divisions in the perceptions as neutral, positive and negative is an appropriate scheme as some individuals may feel no impact on their cities playing as host. Additionally, objectives of the study are achievable as the author precisely examines in the questionnaire the reasons behind the expectations and the views of the individuals under the exploration.
Moreover, the author engaged residences from all the four venues that hosted the activities during data collection. Using participants who reside in all the hosting places reduced bias in the results as the geographic regions could affect the perception of the residents and the responses to the questionnaire. The author has also spread the data gathering process to factor in variables such as the time, the weather since the responses about the impacts such as traffic jam would depend on the whether it's the weekdays or weekends (Ma et al. 2013). The control variables, therefore, promote the accuracy of the statistics.
The results of the study depend on the data from the residents' reactions before, after, and during the events. The categorization enhances clarity on the trend of the positive and negative perceptions with time. The authors, in all the study results, indicate that there were positive perception and anticipation by the host nations' citizen concerning the occurrences of the world occasions (Ma et al. 2013). The article, however, samples out the partially neutral responses of the residents in regions with tourism activities since they fail to expect disparities in their livelihood during the global sports activities. The main factors to account for the positive perception were due to the expectations of an increase in tourism, employment opportunities for the locals. Although the article achieves its thesis statement with indistinct data collection methods and result from the description, the authors need to have factored the lifestyle of the people as an additional factor towards the perception and the expectation from hosting mega-events.
Oshimi, D., & Harada, M. (2018). Host residents' role in sporting events: The city image perspective. Sport Management Review.
Oshimi and Harada (2018) in their article aim to determine the originator and the result variables the hosting region perceptions. The article also seeks to analyze the effects of the insight on the behavioral intentions of the residents. The editorial suggests that the relationship between the sports mega event and the hosting center is a useful determinant of the image of the city. The authors' findings also reveal that there is a relationship between the sporting occasion and the attachment of the residents to the hosting town.
The article in its introduction categorically states that sporting events need to be beneficial to the hosting nations. The author focuses on the promotion of the image of the city as an advantage of bidding to be hosts. The writers are indistinct in their description of how the events can promote tourism as they gain competitive advantages. The authors, however, fail to recognize and mention any disadvantages that the role of playing hosts can have on the communities. The author, however, covers the theoretical methods of the study in the introductory section (Oshimi & Harada, 2018). The article needs to have presented the summary of the steps of analyzing the impact of the events to the hosting communities during the drafting of the abstract.
The article further identifies four hypotheses that are essential theme development. The use of the theory of reasoned action suggests that humans have a tendency to develop certain behavioural intentions which is predictable with various contexts. The article describes tourists behavior such as revisits to the city can help predict the effect of the sporting occasion on the image of the hosting region (Oshimi & Harada, 2018). The writers also have developed a relationship among the hosting town and the sporting episodes. The use of the antecedent variable suggests that the brands of the sponsors would promote the image of the municipality. The authors however fail to elaborate on the aspects of the city image that can have a positive effect towards attracting visitors after the events. The article in its description concentrates on the after-occasion impacts but fails to consider the before-events aspects (Oshimi & Harada, 2018). The article needs to have issues suggestions of how the image of the hosts shapes the outcomes of the sporting activities. The artifact moreover in the analysis show that the sports occasions developed an attachment of the residents with their towns that host the functions.
The authors in their survey chose the cycling event that took place Japan in which they used participants from the city of Saitama. The author ensures accuracy of the data by considering age, gender and the employment status for effective responses (Oshimi & Harada, 2018). It is encouraging that the writers engaged the graduate students they trained for the survey, and as such, ensured the quality of the data sets before the analysis stage. The analysis using the hypothesis was also advantageous since it promoted clarity of the findings to anyone using the results.
The authors as researchers authenticate the findings by identifying the limitations of the study. They clearly state that the outcomes of the research apply to infer general conclusions. The sampling method was inconvenient and as such generalizing the results would be inappropriate. The article, therefore fails to promote the accuracy in its finding s about the impact of the mega-events to the urban hosting centers.
Uses of the Articles to Individuals in the Field
The articles are essential to individuals working in the field in various aspects of their assessment and evaluation. The usefulness depends on the objectives that the field research seeks to attain. The main application is aiding researchers with methodologies and criteria of data collection in the study of the impacts of the events on the host nation. The articles suggest the various methods and the corresponding steps that can help determine the numerous effects of the sports occasion (Banjo, 2011). The articles describe the effects of the image on tourism and the economic sectors. The individuals in the field can use questionnaire and direct interviews to investigate and make inferences about the effects of...
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