The welfare and well-being of a child is essential and paramount. It is therefore appropriate to give children a listening ear since they have a right to stay with their respective family members,. Growing along with their family members promotes the health and safety of a child. Any factor that tends to hinder the realization of the right of children need be prohibited in appropriate ways. Child abuse includes any factor that affects children in societies across the globe (Auslander, Sterzing, Threlfall, Gerke, & Edmond, 2016). Child abuse is one of the most vital health situations affecting children. Abusive acts have been linked to the relationship between parents or guardians, the child and the social and environmental culture of the family. Abuse on children has several effects on the welfare and attitude of children in the society. Some of the effects of abuse on children last for a short period of time while other forms of abuse may produce long term impacts. This paper intends to focus on the research works to try and explain the strain theory and how the theory is related to child abuse. The paper also describes the forms and categories of child abuse. The essay describes all this types of abuse in accordance with the strain theory. Moreover, the essay describes the causes and effects of each type of abuse and the appropriate control measures.
According to Shelly, strain theory determines a number of factors that influence an individual who reacts to strain with crime. The theory describes self-complexity SC. Self-complexity can be described as the sum of identities that one categorises as important at a personal level (van der Put, & de Ruiter, 2016). The theory further suggests that individuals with less SC are vulnerable to negative reactions and habits of strain. Due to lower SC, they are therefore likely to prefer assault or heavy drinking habits. For instance teasing of an individual may provoke a reaction which is violent as a sign of disappointment. The theory also suggests that individuals are driven into criminal acts due to strains or other negative related situations they face. Through crime, individuals tend to believe that they reduce the negative emotions they undergo. Other people may however, use non-violent and lawful ways to manage their negative emotions. The theory, moreover, lacks of resources and social control to alleviate strain, and as such, increases the likelihood of the application of unlawful behaviour. Some individuals may opt to discuss their situations with friends as a method to ease the pressure that they face.
There are several factors that determine the ability of an individual to manage a strenuous situation. Poor skills to deal with strain, poor status of emotional support, poor social control, and beliefs about the behaviour suitable for crime promote abusive reaction to issues. Exposure to circumstances in which it is highly beneficial to use criminal coping than lawful activities which has low consequence may encourage crime. Poor coping skills make individuals to resort to crime as coping strategy to a situation.
There are individuals with poor methods to tackle problems. Some individuals have limited social skills and hence negative emotions, a recipe for criminal acts. In other cases, socioeconomic status and low efficacy may also determine the response to strain. One would expect that self-esteem is a factor that controls the likelihood of crime in response to a strannous experience. However, self-esteem does not prohibit the possibility of crime causing strain. Research suggests that acquiring means to solve problems, emotional and spiritual management strategies limit the effect of strain to cause crime. Social support and stability is essential in controlling strain. Support from other people in times of emotional circumstances helps an individual to cope with any condition. The extent, to which social support may assist an individual to cope with strain, however, depends on the attitude of an individual on whether the friends are worth opening up to or not.
Social control assists determines to how individuals perceive crime. Some people view crime as a normal issue hence don't classify it as a wrong. Those individuals who don't view crime as unethical will resort to violent and unlawful activities as suitable methods to counter strain. Individuals who believe in societal norms and ethics are less likely to offend others when they undergo strenuous situations. Associating with individuals of a certain character will mostly determine the way one behaves. Relationships with criminals will increase the chances of an individual to engage in crime as preferred tactic to reduce stress. The peers act as models to character and behaviour towards a certain situation and experience. Every action has consequences. The consequences are either positive or negative. An individual will prefer benefits from any situation. Therefore, there are high chances of engaging in crime if the benefits surpass the cons. Individuals therefore undergo frustration, depression and anger due to strain. Appropriate strategies are essential to tackle these strain situations in an effort to limit criminal acts.
There are several categories of child abuse. Children react in different ways to physical abuse. Some children are likely to engage in crime in cases where they experience physical maltreatment. Physical abuse is the unintentional harm or injury to an individual. Some statistical survey in contrast suggests that some children are less likely to commit crime compared to other children who are unabused. In some countries such as the European states, it is abusive hence illegal to hit a child. There are some situations where young ones who experience abuse face temptations to carry out property crimes, especially if the children are neglected in addition to abuse they experience. Studies show that several other regions still involve physical techniques to control discipline among children. Studies further indicate that over 15% of children experience physical abuse. Some suffer from hitting or being tied and bound. Although most male parents are linked to physical punishment to children, mothers are highly associated with this form of abuse.
Physical abuse has several negative consequences to families and communities. These abuses may lead to dysfunctional families and violence within the family. Studies reveal that the boy child experiences abuse more than the girls. Abuse can also result from unwanted child born out of a departed relationship (Esser, Rao, Gururaj, Murthy, Jayarajan, Sethu, 2016) . In some situations, parents expect abnormal performances from their children. The high expectations form a platform for physical violence hence promoting abuse. Parental behaviours also contribute to the prevalence of physical abuse. Researchers also suggest that approximately 150000 children experience physical harm while over 100000 face sexual harm (Denmark & Segal, 213). Some parents will resort to abusing the children physically if they feel unable to control them. Alcoholism among most parents also promotes abuse. According to several surveys, at least 1 million children experience harm annually.
Emotional abuse is also a factor in the behaviour of children. Anger is a common consequent of emotional maltreatment towards children. Negative emotions such as anger are likely to increase cases of unlawful act among children. Failure to achieve certain targets set a platform to engage in crime (Hughes, & Cossar, 2016). Emotional abuse mostly results from regular behaviours of relationships that are abnormal and as such lead to several effects on the behaviour of the child characteristic and the emotional wellbeing. Children show distress especially when their parents behave in a different manner which appears abnormal. For example, England recorded 18% of children with emotional abuse. While physical abuse was almost 12% of the children.
Children may also undergo sexual abuse. Children who experience abuse sexually are unlikely to engage in crime. These forms of abuse have no effect on violent acts by the victims. The sexually abused individuals may however, engage in status offenses compared to those who are not abused. There are several forms of sexual abuse that children may experience (Richardson, & Bacon, 2003). Some children face sexual intercourse or rape. It is also an abuse to show children pornographic materials as these may affect their behaviour prematurely. Some individuals can touch or kiss children in a way that suggests sexual intent amounting to abuse. In some countries, adults commit young individuals in prostitution as a form of employment. Moreover, with homosexuality cases on the increase, several children face abuse through oral sex.
To sum up on the issue of the types of child abuse, abuse against young adults sets a platform for increasing criminal activities with neglect of the children promoting further violent reactions. Neglected adolescents and children are more aggressive, proactive and disruptive in character due to maltreatment (Conte, 2014). Abused and neglected children, according to survey, may record lower academic achievements. Poor academic performance later influences their ability to make decisions hence high chances to engage in crime. Parental monitoring from parents is the main cause of physical neglect, and as such, lack of the parental guidance creates a platform for children to engage in crime.
Neglect is a vital factor to consider when evaluating child abuse and effects. Children who experience abuse need help. Through offering support to needy parents, the children also benefit directly. There is need for agencies to work towards identifying cases of child abuse and formulate management strategies of abuse. Upon early recognition of abuse, the agencies should establish methods to intervene with an aim to promote the welfare of children (Krase, & DeLong-Hamilton, 2015). The society needs to acknowledge the significance of respecting emotional or physical affairs of children. The values attitudes beliefs and knowledge are important in the ability to listen and address issues that concern abuse. The values and attitude have an effect on the responses towards abuse situations. All the factors that relate to emotions toward abuse shape the management of abuse.
Acknowledging the essence of respect and value that individuals invest in a child. Appreciating the value of a child promotes the services that the child receives from the society. Gender, race and ethnicity determine the attitude of a child towards certain individuals. For instance, negative treatment from a white individual towards a black child may discourage child from communicating to the whites. A child grows as they learn and adapt to the culture of their families and societies. The adults need to promote confidence that young ones develop in the adults. Survey indicates that most young individuals restrain from sharing thir concerns and issues. The children feel that the elderly can fail to give any form of help in addressing their concerns.
Referrals form essential strategies in protecting children from abuse. Referrals will then be followed with appropriate actions depending on the situation. Social services offer relevant help in cases of abuse. After a referral, the relevant service provider assesses the status of the abuse to attain appropriate information (Skuse, Bruce, & Dowdney, 2017). The social services provider works on the principal of Working Together to Safeguard Children Guidance (Department of Health 1999). The relevant agency can take an emergency precautionary act in situations where the child is in imminent danger that threatens l...
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