According to the United States, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stormwater management is the process of trying to stop or reduce the runoff of melted snow or rainwater in the lawns and streets, the method also includes the improvement of the quality of water. Stormwater infrastructure involves structures that assist in the management and conservation of rainwater. Additionally, it helps in reducing the risk of flooding, that would negatively affect families and their homes. Hence green stormwater serves a significant way in ensuring that the risk of flooding and water contamination is hugely minimized (Berland, Shiflett, Shuster, Garmestani, Goddard, Herrmann, & Hopton, 2017). The paper will look at stormwater management in general.
Additionally, green infrastructure is a technique that will assist many states in improving the drainage systems of their urban areas and cities. Stormwater management is a continuous process and should be put in place by each individual (Berland et al., 2017). By carrying out this process, there are some added advantages, such as reducing the intensity of floods. The highest percentage of water that causes flooding in various parts of the world come from the roofs of the buildings. Hence it is necessary to ensure that the water does not run into the streets than to the rivers and causing floods.
Moreover, the speed of the running water is compromising to loose soils, and it may end up causing soil erosion (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). Water flowing freely in the streets may go through several places where it may be contaminated and polluting some sources of water for domestic use. For example, the green infrastructure that involves diverse methods of water management that include roadside planting, vegetated rooftops and absorbent gardens. By employing these management techniques, it helps in cutting off the amount of water that may end up in sewers, lakes, and rivers, this would result in water pollution (Berland et al., 2017).
The contaminated water will cause diseases to individuals if they take it before treating it. Several programs have been erected by different cities to ensure that they control the running water and make it useful. For example, the city of Chicago has launched a program by the name Green Stormwater Infrastructure (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). Additionally, stormwater management may involve some steps that are very crucial. One it consists of the process of water harvesting, and this can be applied in homesteads, especially when there is a downfall. The water collected can be of many uses; for example, it can be used for domestic purpose. Furthermore, the water may be of good use in the industries; as a result, it will reduce the cost of operation for the given organization.
Another water management infrastructure the Gray infrastructure that more traditional system of water management. The method depends on some structures such as concrete, pipes, and channel stormwater in collecting the rainwater. Although it is a right way of harvesting water, the system does not provide essential benefits as the green infrastructure as it does not reduce the amount of water that reaches waterways and also does not improve the quality of the runoff. A study shows that runoff is one of the leading agents of pollution in the United States (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). Hence the Green infrastructure will help in solving these issues by reducing the amount of runoff, and this will minimize pollution and soil erosion.
Water is one of the essential commodities of any given state, and the chances of surviving without water are almost zero. Apart from being used for drinking purposes, waterways are crucial to the economy of a nation and also the globe. It boasts the economy in that it is used in industries for the production of goods (Berland et al., 2017). Additionally, water provides an excellent platform for recreation activities, and this helps in refreshing the mind of individuals while also bring taxes to the government through ecotourism. Moreover, water makes it possible for public health to continue without any difficulties in the public facilities, as no facility would function excellently without water. As a result, it is essential to improve stormwater management to enjoy the benefits that come along with clean water (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). Almost every state is working tirelessly to develop a long-term solution to the sustainability of water systems.
Water plays an essential role in the agriculture sector as it is a significant factor that enables the growth and maturity of plants. Without water, then there would be no food or plants. Some methods that may be suitable in stabling the sustainability of the water and waterways include water conservation. If the water available on the surface is conserved to the extent that it is not polluted, then the shortage of water would not exist (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). There is a day for water conservation that is celebrated on the 22nd march annually, and this indicates how vital is the issue of conserving water. Some ways that may apply in maintenance include, harvesting rainwater, also reusing and recycling domestic water.
Managing stormwater in the world is a challenging task that requires the authority involved to be more severe with their work. A study indicates that for every inch of rain, it generates almost four billion liters of stormwater (Emanuel & Emanuel, 2017). As a result, it is not a simple task to deal with this volume of water in a single city. Another challenge brought about by rainwater is the sewer overflows, this mainly happens in towns and urban areas. Sewer overflow may cause some health implications and hence causing severe epidemics. Additionally, the storms that exceed the capacity of the sewer may cause basement flooding; that is, if the rain is too much to the extent that it cannot be handled by the treatment plants, it may be dangerous (Hale et al., 2017). If the water does not flow, it comes back and settles in homes and basements of some buildings.
Recently the world is experiencing a large percentage of climatic change. As a result, the stormwater is increasing as some areas are experiencing excess downfall that was not evident in the past (Hale et al., 2017). Due to this, the green infrastructure is essential in reducing the risks that are brought about by the heavy rains being experienced as a result of the increase in climate change. The project is one the leading process of dealing with the runoff water; it was introduced in Chicago, and it is mostly applied to control the water storms in the area, and it has proved to be essential and useful in controlling precipitation storms.
The stormwater projects play significant roles in controlling runoffs and preserving the water from the rainfall. Some of the benefits are economical, while others are social advantages, and the green stormwater infrastructure is becoming familiar so various states. As a result, the cities are starting to use this kind of system to reduce flooding, build resilience, and improve water quality in their areas (Hoang & Fenner, 2016). The benefits involve environmental benefits, some techniques use vegetation and trees, and they have positive impacts on the environment. Through this vegetation, the system is able to filter the toxic particles emitted by vehicles and industries in any nation. If the fumes are not removed from the atmosphere, they may be poisonous to animals and human beings, they may also lead to acidic rain. The acidic downfall, in most cases, causes some loss; for example, it erodes the roofs of buildings, and these may add financial loss to individuals.
Additionally, the increase in vegetation will lead to an increase in biodiversity due to the availability of many species of plants. In turn, the plants will encourage ecotourism, and also, they create homes for other animals (Hoang & Fenner, 2016). Moreover, the vegetation will decrease the amount of water lost through evaporation as they cover the ground, hence minimizing the amount of solar heat that reaches the ground. The traditional infrastructures primarily direct the wastewater into rivers, and this causes pollution to the rivers and streams. These become poisonous to the aquatic ecosystem and may also kill these valuable living organisms. On the other hand, the green system collects the water before it gets contaminated and directs it to the pond and another reservoir. The water can either be used for irrigation or that that infiltrates evaporates, leading to an increase in rainfall.
Furthermore, the green infrastructure brings a widespread crucial advantage economically. Firstly, the technique reduces the construction cost that was involved in the construction of traditional infrastructures, such as the grey technique. The traditional systems required a lot of funding due to the development of sewers and drainage tunnels. Also, the maintenance cost is significantly slashed to almost zero as the green infrastructure requires very little or no maintenance and running cost-additional funds were used in labor, purchasing materials for construction and financing of the entire project (Hoang & Fenner, 2016). The Green approach also minimizes the cost of treating the collected water as the water is collected and filtered in a more natural style that does not require purchasing chemicals for treatment. Moreover, the reduced operational cost, in turn, reduces the air pollution that could have been experienced during the construction and treatment of the water.
The traditional methods of stormwater management entirely comprised of digging tunnels, and these destroyed the physical appearance of a state. Besides this, the green system brings new ideas such as planting trees, and these trees create shades for people to rest and bring venues for social gathering. The roots of the plantations hold the soil firmly, and these reduce the soil erosion that may occur due to rain and strong winds (Lucas & Sample, 2015). The green infrastructure, on the other hand, has some constraints in that there is unknown information about how the project will fully complement the traditional model. There is a lot of research and analysis on how the green technique will reduce the flooding of the basements, and this is because, in scenarios of torrential downpour, it allows water to flow into the streets (Hale et al., 2017). Financial analysts have argued that the real cost of the project is not evident; hence it is challenging to establish real benefits it brings about. Additionally, there is little knowledge of the cost of maintaining the value, whether it can guarantee long-term efficiency and effectiveness.
Furthermore, some of these infrastructures may be very challenging to install, depending on the targeted area and type. For example, it may difficult to build a pond in an urban area that is densely populated (Lucas & Sample, 2015). The construction here may distract the daily economic trends and the regular movement of individuals. Also, the maintenance needs a lot of attention given the nature of the green infrastructure, any mistake in maintaining it may lead to failure, and this may be fatal. It is evident that the model cannot handle heavy rainfall, so in the incidences of torrential downpour, it will lead to flooding, and it may destroy structures such as rain gardens and bioswales.
The building of the green stormwater infrastructure needs a lot of financial and physical personnel, skilled people such as policymakers, engineers, and designers. Green approach primarily employs three techniques in construction, and they are able to manage the...
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