In the US, the term inner cities are used to indicate places that have higher populations with low-income earners. At times they are given the connotation, Black neighborhoods. In other countries, the connotation inner cities will refer to places where the housing is expensive, and the elites who are the high income earns dwell. With distance suburbs that are away from the cities, crime and poverty are the order of the day. The same applies to American cities like San Francisco and New York.
The sociological usage of the term can be traced back to the 20th century. At this time, the automobiles had become affordable whereby the high-income and the middle residents of the US moved to the suburbs to have larger houses and lower crime rates thereby leaving the inner city communities to fall into urban decay (Chaskin, & Joseph, 2015). Many areas later in the century underwent gentrification such as the west coast and the northeast depriving them of the inner city label even though the locations remained unchanged.
With social transformations, most cities in the US have changed as the people have ascribed different status from the ones they had. The cities have improved due to the economic growth and political upheavals. Due to social transformations, the crime rates are reduced, and even the provision of the social amenities improve. Social transformation is of utmost importance to the life of the societies change and does improve for the better good of everyone.
2. Trust in the political system
In the recent years, many scholars postulate that a perilous look at the political system may invigorate the democratic society. A critical analysis of the governance and the government policies by the citizens does hold the politicians and the government bureaucrats accountable continuously on a perpetual basis as this does increase the superiority of making decisions democratically. Different consequences are concomitant with political conviction regarding the effectiveness of the government. The amount of trust in the political system has a direct impact on the law-abiding insolences. Mostly, it is anticipated that the populaces with low trust echelons on the political institutions find easiness in the breaking of the law.
Low echelons of political confidence do undermine the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the government actions and the ability of the government to contrivance a legislation. In most instances, the small levels of the political reliance are allied with the little support for the compliance to the law within the society and hence, less public alacrity to defer the decisions made with political institutions.
With the nonexistence of the voluntary agreement, often, governments resort to coercive actions so as to enforce rules. The result is that governing becomes harder and in many instances costly. The squat echelons of political reliance is an impediment to the functioning of a democratic process.
It is of paramount significance that those who are in power resort to make the political institutions trustworthy and earn the citizens trust. With such a step, the citizen can abide by the law with easy and render governance to be easy with the democratic process becoming a reality.
3. Risk assessment and countering violent extremism
Across the world, religious, political and ideological violence has been on the rise. Several countries have been a target as most cities have been at the center of numerous attacks such as the London and Madrid bombings of 2005 and 2004 respectively (Amatrudo & Blake, 2015).
The European Union and its member states with other countries of the world have made it a priority to tackle violent extremism. Millions of euros have been invested in the fight against the vice as different countries have postulated numerous policies and interventions as a counter measure. The interventions are aimed at making states a safer place to inhabit.
Violent extremism generates many questions regarding the dangerousness of these nature of offenders. Most importantly and the underlying problem in any security organs is what type, if any, risk assessment that can be undertaken for future terrorist acts and violent extremists individuals. Risk assessment brings about the risk which individuals convicted of violent extremism pose to the society and whether terrorist violence is different from other types of criminal violence. The question of whether the existing risk assessment protocols are appropriate to the offenders convicted of violent extremism also arises.
Violent extremists are not law abiding. A government which supports violent extremism is not capable of supporting and enacting laws which are favorable to its citizens. The citizens also cannot trust their governments with any regulation that it comes up with. It is the responsibility of all organs of the government to make sure that violent extremism is well tackled to avoid the instance of terrorism which can lead to massive loss of life and property.
4. Blalock's threat curve
The power threat theory as illustrated by Hubert Blalocks (1967), indicates that the grander the size of the minority groups, there is a significant peril to the mainstream groups as they will react to the apparent threat by inaugurating of the legal reins and other available measures so as to shield their prevailing status. From Blalock's models, the focus is mostly put on the Anglo and the African American relations.
The change of the demographics alters the prevailing majority-minority associations as the Hispanics displace the African Americans as the biggest community. According to Blalock (1967), the majority populations do impose punitive consents on the marginal citizens when they believe that the minority population has evolved to being a peril to the prevailing social order most principally in the political, social areas and the economic resources.
Most researchers indicate that the solemnity of the charges governs the amount of the charges presented against a defendant. The accused persons who have the largest number of offenses and the highest number of charges which did equal their nastiest charge are the perpetrators with the loftier amount of burdens against them.
The race of the defendants and their social, economic demographics within the country in which cases are processed has a lesser influence regarding a number of burdens. However, racial differences provide an indication that being an African-American defendant amplified the amount of the charges funneled while it was not substantial to being a white offender. The geographical regions were also not significant at the presentencing structure, but at the post-sentencing structure, there was a significant reduction of the number of the charges from the Piedmont region.
An increase on a number of burdens postulated against a defendant is associated to the solemnity of the burdens. African-American defendants received disparate treatment from the justice system.
5. Black men killed by police in the United States
Most countries throughout the world exhibit police brutality. It is the case mostly against the immigrants or people who are not in agreement with the governments. The Police cruelty is the usage of superfluous force by the police when dealing with the civilians. Excessive force exhibits a force beyond what could be necessary to handle the situation mostly in the physical form. Police use excessive force in calming down any situation they come in contact with and even though they may be wrong, little is done to have them face the law.
In the case of America, there is internal turbulence that has spread like wildfire whereby citizens are losing faith in the ones protecting them. Black men have been killed and in most instances while being unarmed during encounters with the police. Research indicates that about 102 out of the 464 persons killed last year by the law execution officers were not carrying artilleries.
According to Amatrudo & Blake (2015) 32% of the black people killed by the police in the year 2015 were weaponless as it were 25% of the Latino and Hispanic compared to the 15% of the white people exterminated.
Such killings exhibited by the police on a particular race inhibits the administration of the law. The black people find it hard to trust the government as well as it is hard for them to uphold the laws postulated by the same governments. People cannot trust a government that does not follow the laws and the constitution they swore to uphold. It is the responsibility of the government to ensure that the law is applied equally to all people irrespective of race, ethnicity or color.
6. Sus law and justice system fairness
In numerous ways, significant advancement has been made in the US over the past epoch towards the objective of ensuring that there is equal treatment of all the citizens under the law. But in the present America criminal justice, there is growing racial inequality which is not receding. Even though the criminal laws are facially neutral, they are applied in a way which is pervasively and massively biased. The criminal justice system injustices threaten to plunder the countrys hard fought civil rights progression irrelevant.
Even though the policy provides a vital part in the guarding of human privileges, at times, they infringe on certain individual moralities such as liberty of movement and association and the right to privacy. The police are indorsed to do so in case if the transgression is proportionate, rational and lawful (Amatrudo & Blake, 2015). Contrary, the police make use of their powers inexplicably proposing that they are stopping and probing folks in a way which is prejudiced, inefficient and brings about a waste of civic money.
Research indicates that policing to the human rights is more efficient as it makes the citizens feel safer. The underlying idea of the stop and search is for the governments to keep its citizens safer. Even though in some instances, the stop and search go hand in hand with the overall decline in the echelons of crime; it is paramount for governments to ensure that the citizens feel safer within their country.
7. Jihad and French exception
France has experienced and perceived an exceptional upsurge of Islamic trepidation which culminated in the November 13th assaults in Paris. It was the dullest terror assaults since the March of 2004 Madrid train bombings in Europe. All the attackers in the Brussels-Paris high-speed train were citizens of France of which the greater majority were sired and raised within France. Mohamed Merah is the undisputed role model and icon for the new generation of the French jihadist.
A 23-year-old in Toulouse on the march of 2012 went on a killing spree thereby assassinating 3 French paratroopers in different incidents after which he pulled up in the front of a Jewish school with his T-Max motorbike executing a teacher, and three small children point blank. He was killed in the police shootout three days later.
With the upsurge of the France homegrown Islamic terror, more people are losing a life, and the government needs to take appropriate action to end the vice. Even though Merah was killed, more and more if not thousands of young French people with a similar background having followed Merahs footsteps thereby flock the jihadist-controlled parts of Syria to join the ISIS and Nusra Front. They are not afraid of death and are therefore prepared to take the risk and meet the violent end. From the story of Merah, there is an indication that there is a failure of the French counter-terrorism and the French society itself.
The French community and the government agencies need to work...
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