Zablotsky, B., Bradshaw, C. P., Anderson, C. M., & Law, P. (2014). Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 18(4), 419-427.
Although children with learning disorders often face a higher risk of bullying, some studies have been executed to investigate the predictors of bullying, specifically on children facing autism spectrum illnesses. Concerning the hypothesis statement, children with a high rate of autism spectrum disorders have more chances of being the victims of bullying. The research is based on the finding from 1221 parents chosen from the registry of the national web-based, and their children specifically have autism spectrum disorders. The method involved parents completing a survey base on bullying of their children in school, and the analysis involved logic regression in identifying risk factors involving such children. The research concluded that children with a high rate of autism disorders and comorbid conditions are more likely to become victims of bullying in school. Concerning research evaluation, the study should also focus on assessing the best support to provide for children with autism disorders.
Khamis, V. (2015). Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: Risk and protective factors. Child abuse & neglect, 39, 137-146.
The research aims at assessing the prevalence of bullying among children in school and how the differences in family, socio-demographics, coping strategies, and school environment causes variation ion in school performance, as well as emotional disorders. Based on the hypothesis statement, high percentages of children are frequently involved in bullying at school, and the victims are more prevalence compared to the bullies. The research method included 665 children, including boys and girls, with an average mean age of 13.8 years who experience bullying in school. The study concluded that verbal bullying was rampant and was the main form of victimization, and rejection that children receive from their groups. Also, bullying based on religion is among the common forms of victimization at school.
Hebron, J., & Humphrey, N. (2014). Exposure to bullying among students with autism spectrum conditions: A multi-informant analysis of risk and protective factors. Autism, 18(6), 618-630.
The study has perpetually demonstrated that young people and children with autism spectrum have higher chances of experiencing bullying compared to those children without learning disabilities. The research aims at assessing the risk and factors that explain differences in exposure to victimization among children with and without autism disorders. Based on the hypothesis, special education needs, as well as parent engagement and confidence, are significant factors that reduce bullying among children with learning disabilities. The research methodology included 119 parents and 722 teachers, and the parents reported bullying cases experienced by their children. The study conducted a regression using different response variables showing contextual and individual factors. Both teacher and parent models recorded a significant result indicating higher variation in the exposure of children to bullying. One of the factors that were associated with bullying is a behavior problem, as well as increased age. The research concluded that decent relationships and the joining of special schools by children with learning disorders reduce bullying. The research needs to capture more on factors that are associated with bullying and why it is higher for children with learning disabilities.
Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., Monda-Amaya, L. E., Shogren, K. A., & Aragon, S. R. (2015). Bullying and middle school students with and without specific learning disabilities: An examination of social-ecological predictors. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48(3), 239-254.
The contemporary research has examined demographic variables, social support, and the sense of belonging as the determinants for engaging in bullying for children with particular learning disorders and children without learning disorders. Concerning hypothesis statement, engagement in bullying among children is invariant, and factors including grade, race, gender, and participation in school activities are significant in determinants of engagement of children in bullying. The research methodology included samples from teachers and children who are both victims and bullies. The study concluded that peer support is a significant factor associated with a decrease in bullying and victimization for children with learning disabilities. Additionally, schools should consider adopting anti-bullying programs that support enhanced social support among pears and integrate specific interventions for children with learning disorders.
Shetgiri, R. (2013). Bullying and victimization among children. Advances in pediatrics, 60(1), 33.
Bullying and victimization among children with learning disabilities are a public health crisis around the world. Bullying is often referred to as perpetuated intentional aggression perpetrated by people of more power on individuals with less power who becomes the victims. Regarding the hypothesis statement, various factors, including parental, peer, and individual factors, enhances the risk of engagement in bullying among children with learning disorders. Research methods included samples of parents and children who experience bullying in the United States. The study concluded that the victims and bullies are at high risk of encountering long-term and short-term problems such as low self-esteem, delinquency, anxiety, and depression. Based on the evaluation of the study, anti-bullying is usually a school-based, and it shows variable results. Healthcare providers should intervene to identify possible bullies and victims, and provide screening for co-morbidities, as well as to provide counseling while advocating for anti-bullying among children with learning disorders.
Zablotsky, B., Bradshaw, C. P., Anderson, C., & Law, P. A. (2013). The association between bullying and the psychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(1), 1-8.
Bullying is a major issue nationally because it adversely impacts on children with learning disorders. The research seeks to investigate the relationship between comorbid condition engagement in bullying and the emotional correlations of bullying for students with autism disorders. Concerning the hypothesis, students with learning disorders who are regularly victimized are more likely to experience psychological regulation problems. The research method included 1221 parents taken from the national sample to complete a survey involving bullying and emotional experience in school. The study used multivariate logic regression. The study concluded that students with autism spectrum disorders who portrayed bullying behaviors displayed emotional impairment as well as psychiatric co-morbidity. The victims displayed internalizing symptoms and psychological regulation problems. More research is required to assess the effect of such emotional problems on children's learning.
Maiano, C., Normand, C. L., Salvas, M. C., Moullec, G., & Aime, A. (2016). Prevalence of school bullying among youth with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Autism research, 9(6), 601-615.
It is proposed that the actual school bullying among children with autism spectrum disorder is an area that has not been explored. The research, therefore, seeks to assess the proportion of children who are involved in bullying including both bullies and the victims, the variation in the prevalence estimates due to different heterogeneity and assessment methods are put into consideration. And, the research aim at comparing the risks of bullying between children with autism and their peers. The hypothesis is that children with autism spectrum disorders are at high risk of being bullied. The research method includes a sample of 17 children in school. The study reported a prevalence of 10% for bullying perpetration, 44% for victimization, and 16% for both bullying and victimization. For verbal, physical, and victimization was reported 50%, 33%, and 31%, respectively. Further research should capture the variation in the type of bullying experienced by children with learning disorders.
Bear, G. G., Mantz, L. S., Glutting, J. J., Yang, C., & Boyer, D. E. (2015). Differences in bullying victimization between students with and without disabilities. School Psychology Review, 44(1), 98-116.
The research literature has shown a variation in the rate of prevalence of bullying among students with disabilities. The research focused on such variability, including the variation of rate with the function of the disorder, as well as based on the measures for bullying and the methods used in classifying students as victims. The hypothesis of the study was based on the concept that the prevalence rate relatively differs based on both the type of disorder and the method of classifying victims. Research methods included a sample of 1027 parents of students with disabilities and 11500 parents of students without learning disorder, as well as 12 behaviors, including physical, verbal, and social bullying among students. The study concluded that the rate varies due to the criteria used in classifying bullying and the type of disability, especially on the victims. To evaluate the study, the victims should capture those students who experience regular bullying and not just sometimes.
Espelage, D. L., Rose, C. A., & Polanin, J. R. (2016). Social-emotional learning program to promote prosocial and academic skills among middle school students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 37(6), 323-332.
The research was conducted to examine the efficiency of the second step children's success through prevention, social and psychological learning programs for the increase in behaviors that protect students against peer conflict, as well as bullying among students with disorders. Based on the hypothesis, students with disorders from the intervention school demonstrate greater willingness to participate in bullying compare to those children with disorders but are from control school. The research method included 123 children with learning disorders in 12 schools in the United States. For inclusion, children with disabilities were chosen. Self-report was completed by children from different schools based on empathy, willingness, and caring. The research concludes that social and psychological learning programs for children with disorders should be demonstrated.
Rose, C. A., Forber-Pratt, A. J., Espelage, D. L., & Aragon, S. R. (2013). The influence of psychosocial factors on bullying involvement of students with disabilities. Theory Into Practice, 52(4), 272-279.
The participation of children with disabilities within the bullying and victimization dynamics has been perceived as an issue of concern in different schools. Notably, some research has investigated the emotional consequences associated with the bullying engagement of children with disabilities. Despite the participation in bullying being associated with long-term and short-term consequences both for bullies and victims, it has increased the need for examining the relationship between bullying involvement and emotional results. Concerning the hypothesis of the study, involvement in bullying causes psychological problems both for bullies and victims among children with learning disorders. Research methods included a sample from children who experience bullying and the perpetrators.
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