Research Paper on Social Psychology Theories

Paper Type:  Research paper
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1717 Words
Date:  2022-06-19

Social Influence Theory

Social influence theory provides an explanation of the behaviours or any form of operation adopted by an individual is influenced by another person or group with similar or related characteristics. A Deng, Chao and Bai (2010) argued that the theory can be used appropriately to demonstrate and understand the applicable strategies social media engagement in the context of culturally diverse communities. However, with respect to the implications of social influence culture, there is need to recognize the concept of diversity and culture in the occurrence of social interactions in a given social platform. Bolt (2017) added that the theory has been applied as a basis of the understanding of incorporation of various cultural perspectives among people of diverse characteristics. According to Robles (2014), this has been an ongoing concept which is facilitated by the various social media platforms where individual initially known to have different cultures meet (Brijnath, 2015). The individuals at some point will express their cultural practices through many different ways which may influence other groups to adopt the associated behaviours (Bertram, and Katti, 2013; Bode, 2017; Coetzee, 2016).

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According to Chen and Chen (2016), the concepts of diversity have been overlooked in the recent years however people have realized the need to consider them since interactions are not limited among individual of a homogenous group. This calls for the need to understand their individual ways of life and the possible outcome of their interactions. Social influence theory tends to examine how a given group stays dominant hence influences another group to adopt their cultural perspectives (Chen, Chen and Xu, 2016). Iwasaki, (2017) pointed out that the theory on this note makes one group of a given culture consider themselves the most important among their colleagues. On the other hand, the other group suffers from complex inferiority whereby they may probably look down upon their activities.

Reisenwitz (2013) noted that this has been a common phenomenon in the social media whereby people interact and one social group may embrace and incorporate a cultural existence other than theirs. Therefore, as many different cultures exist, according to the provisions of social influence theory, other individuals may be influenced to adopt what other people consider (Mitts, 2017; Pamment, 2016, pp.2046-2062; Pamment, 2016, pp.2046-2062).

Social Identity Theory

Rego, Reis Junior, Cunha and Stallbaum (2016) argued that social identity theory is applicable to the understanding of the approaches to engagement among culturally diverse groups in socials media. The model tends to predict the resultant behaviours following the interaction between groups associated with significant differences (Panagiotopoulos, 2012, pp.178-192; Pearce, 2015).

Smith, (2015, pp.119-133) enthused that user based engagement in social media is founded on the perceived mutual trust. On the other hand, Whitford, and Addis (2017,pp.241-255) stated that in order to advance behavioural outcomes for culturally and linguistically diverse, it is first important to give them a purpose, a goal or something they can work towards attaining. Under normal circumstances, an individual can move from one side to another owing to the possibility of the influential cultural perspectives (Euerby & Burns, 2013). However, the theory implies that human beings tend to believe in their social selves. On this note, individual have confidence and demonstrate their love for their culture.

People normally meet in the various social media platforms where people freely identify themselves with their unique social perspectives. As opposed to the social influence theory where a cultural group dominate the others and influences them to their side, Graham, Kim, Clinton-Sherrod, Yaros, Richmond, Jackson and Corbie-Smith (2015) argued that a group may rather admire how others respect their culture and express it without fear. This may be used as a strategic approach which may be adopted by other cultural groups. Social identity theory manifests in practice where an individual of a given culture would like themselves to be identified by their own unique perspectives rather than adopting what the others portray (Han, Chae, Macko, Park & Beyerlein, 2017).

He, Yamashita, Wacharamanotham, Horn, Schmid and Huang (2017 showed that the possibility of changing one's behaviours still remains, however, only on the condition that one has the ability to modify one's self-concept or self-identity. This relates to one's emotional attachment and the knowledge of their groups' unique perspectives. Social identity has therefore ever remained since many are conscious of their groups and their characteristics. People have a reason to stick to their own cultures and therefore feel comfortable to be identified with the same (Hillen & Levy, 2015). The knowledge of the unique attaching issues and the love for their social behaviours make social identity a reality. Therefore, people will always justify why they behave in given particular way, and may not be easily swayed to dislike their own way of life, and adopt a different perspective instead (Meshreky, Weekes, and Atkins, 2014).

Social Exchange Theory

According to Lu, Li, Leung, Savani and Morris (2017), the theory considers the social platforms as the business world where people of different beliefs meet to share ideas. Social Exchange Theory occurs as a social psychology concept which focuses on the social changes. The changes are considered as a process which involves interactive exchanges between people of different modes of operations and behaviours. The theory helps in the understanding of the perception of users of social media who are also involved in business activities. Social media has served as a major tool through which people and organizations pass business information to the others (Lu, Li, Leung, Savani & Morris, 2017).

The intervention of the theory, however, tends to change the implication of the approach to business, which is rather seen as relationship based. People end up developing the good or bad attitude of a given business activity behaviour or their cultural perspectives relative to the prevailing conditions in the business environment. Besides, the relationships associated with the business activities established on the online platforms, opportunities are another aspect which determines one's behaviour in a culturally diverse environment. The opportunities are created and made available through the communications strategies which ensure that information is passed to the relevant audience who receive hem in time. The ongoing changes in the social existence, therefore, make the social platforms suitable for the accomplishments of business deals. With that, social therefore emerge appropriate in offering an important platform where the social exchange is made possible for the purpose of business activities (Leung & Wang, 2015).

Socio-Economic Theory

The theory recognizes the existence of the intersection between the economic and social settings as facilitated by the various social platforms. e-business, for instance, has been made possible and facilitated by the healthy interactions which have been allowed between groups of divergent views who end up having an agreement hence finally have a reason to transact a given business activity (Warland & Smith, 2015). The theory provides that the intervention of social relationships may be of positive impact in the context of the need to undertake economic activities like an online business (Liu, 2012). However, O'Mara (2012) argued that the communicative role of mass media which have attracted people of diverse cultures from different parts of the world to a particular commodity and end up developing an interest in a related transaction (Lu, Li, Leung, Savani & Morris, 2017). The result is one of the significant ways in which engagement taking place in the social media occurs irrespective of the cultural differences (Lu, Li, Leung, Savani, & Morris, 2017).

Design Theory

Young (2013) argued that the design theory is based on the understanding of the interactions in terms of their occurrence and implications in the social media. Waldron (2012) added that the theory provides an explanation which is driven towards the understanding of the best ways to ensure user-centric in the course of social interactions in the online platforms. Teater (2016) emphasized that the users of social media come from different regions; therefore obviously, have varying cultures. Savin, Glueck, Chardavoyne, Yager and Novins, (2011) argued that the design theory in this context makes it easy for such people to interact with ease in spite of their cultural differences hence making the exercise user-friendly.

Application of Social Media Interaction Theory in the Australian Muslim Community

Social media is currently the most effective and inclusive engagement platform that can enhance public sphere. Currently, social media use is pervasive in that almost 90% of the people above 18 years of age have social media accounts and can either access the social media through smartphones and or computing devices. There are many theories that support social media as an engagement platform for people of all background. Social media refers to a group of internet-based application that is founded on the ideological and technological advancement of the web 2.0 and can allow the development and exchange of the user-generated content.

The fact that the users of social media create and exchange the user-generated content means that the social media engagement theory is founded on the co-creation theory (Di Gangi, & Wasko, 2016). On the other hand, An, Deng, Chao, and Bai, (2010, pp.574-590) reported that the social media engagement theory such that the concept of user engagement in that the social media is a platform that can facilitate social interaction among people of similar likes or regions (Bolt, 2017, pp.26-28). On the contrary, Brijnath, (2015, pp.660-667). and Chen and Chen, (2016) innovation can enhance public image development. Di Gangi, & Wasko, (2016, pp. 53-73). Han, S., Chae, C., Macko, P., Park, W. and Beyerlein, M. (2017). How virtual team leaders cope with creative challenges. European Journal of Training and Development, 41(3), pp.261-276. For example, people from one geographical location can find social media groups such as Facebook groups or Twitter groups where topics of mutual interest are discussed. Facebook is one such platform where social interaction is achieved across geographical devices and driven by the advancement in information technology.

Web 2.0 has driven user engagement as the embers of social media groups contribute and read content from people of their choices. Social media fan base goes beyond the corporate fan ages for corporate marketing over the social media as the fans follow up topics that interest them online. The user experiences are enhanced by the frequency of user co-creation as the group's members often post content or topics that considered pertinent and sensitive. For example, Australian Federation of Islamic Councils, Lebanese Muslim Association and Australian National Imams Council are major Islamic organizations in Australia that have Facebook pages for group's interaction and engagement. Engagement is derived from the concept of direct participation in discourses (Chen, Chen...

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