Parenting is proposed to have a significant role in child development. Research on preschoolers has focused on understanding the efficacy of different parenting styles, with authoritative being the most appealing approach to parenting thanks to its well-known balance between affection and structure. Authoritative parents listen and allow their children to freely express their thoughts and inspire them to discuss possible options. Huver, Otten, De Vries and Engels (2010) proposed that two aspects of personality-mirroring social relations, agreeableness, and extroversion, are related to supportiveness, whereas emotional solidity is associated with sensible firmness. Under the authoritative style, independence, coherent and unbiased discipline, and warmth are the basic tenants of parenting. Authoritative parents are highly demanding but in a more supportive and caring manner.
According to Larzelere (2013), Baumrind's typology of the various styles of parenting is a key conceptualization of parenting, although is subject to multiple revisions and different critiques. Generally, authoritative parenting is described as demanding, responsive, involved, warm and consistent in the enforcement and establishment of limits, guidelines, and expectations, and promotes and allows autonomous decision making and behavior. These attributes are viewed as involving three critical dimensions, which are behavioral control, psychological autonomy and acceptance. Conversely, authoritarian parents are portrayed as highly demanding and irresponsive, employing power-assertive practices, while permissive parents are considered as somehow responsive but less demanding.
Experts of child development typically categorize the authoritative style of parenting as the best-known approach to child rearing. Dissimilar to the previously advanced styles of parenting with regards to high demandingness and low sensitivity, commonly as authoritarian or low demandingness and high sensitivity, branded as permissive parenting, a high degree of both demandingness and responsiveness are implicated by authoritative parenting. The two aspects are critical ingredients of consistent firmness and heartfelt support (Larzelere, 2013). Child rearing based authoritative parenting result in more cheerful, proficient and successful individuals (Huver et al., 2010). These children believe that they have the capacity to conquer emerging challenges and complete new tasks. These confident individuals comprehend that disappointment is the outcome of not trying hard enough. They consider failure as a result of not trying rather than intelligence related. This group of people considers failure as a result of not trying rather than intelligence related, as well as appreciates the kind of success associated with hard work.
One critical factor in the development of healthy children is parental consistency. Parental inconsistency can cause aggression and anxiety in children. In this context, the inconsistency means that parents demonstrate distinct parental styles, for instance, the mother may exhibit authoritative parenting with the father adopting the authoritarian style of parenting. The inconsistency is linked to increased separation anxiety and school dropout, as well as conduct disorder. Children may be exposed to confusion by inconsistencies in the style of parenting because of their inability to predict the parents' negative reactions. Smith (2006) linked inconsistent parenting with psychological disorders.
Decades of research have linked authoritative parenting to an assortment of positive socioeconomic and cognitive outcomes. For instance, authoritarian parenting is linked to better academic outcomes, competence, autonomy, better adjustment (fewer behavioral problems, less psychological distress, higher self-esteem, better peer relations, and self-reliance). Past research assessed authoritative parenting as an assemblage of parenting practices. However, after recent unpacking of the construct and assessment of the different contributions of the three dimensions, it was established that acceptance contributed to better psychosocial development, less behavioral problem and more independence. Similarly, independence contributed to all the above outcomes with the exception of behavioral problems.
The benefits of authoritative parenting have been examined exhaustively. Rohner (1998) categorized benefits based on family structures, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity, and they established that the authoritative style's positive correlates transcended the mentioned ecological factors (Schroeder & Mowen, 2014). Notwithstanding, follow up assessment depicted that youngsters of African American descent appeared to benefit less from authoritative parenting and were not affected by the authoritarian style of parenting as far as school achievement is concerned. It was concluded that a power assertive and highly demanding authoritarian parenting can be as functional as other parenting styles particularly in an environment where the consequences of disregarding rules may be harmful and serious to both self and others.
Another drawback of authoritative parenting is that its meaning can differ across cultural contexts. Bower (1992) established that a close link between the authoritarian style of parenting and Chinese culture with higher competence in cognition among their preschoolers. It was revealed that authoritarian parenting was associated with negative cognition in cultural groups that placed emphasis on independence and autonomy, but not in those that emphasized respect for authority and interdependence. Penman and Ellis (2009) suggested that what mattered is not the style of parenting but rather the complex attributions, cognitions and the effect that trigger these behaviors. Authoritative parenting provides and demand structure, as well as promotes autonomy by fostering some level of personal freedom and expression of preferences and desires.
Children raised under the authoritative style of parenting stand a relatively higher chance of succeeding academically because the climate within their surroundings prepares them to operate well in authoritative contexts. These findings are based on the theory of ecological system, which states that people fit and adjust better to environments that correlates to their values, attitudes, and experiences. Authoritative parenting aligns with other positive attributes of family functioning, such as a low degree of conflict and high cohesiveness. All these aspects contribute to better adaptation and coping of adolescents. Child effects, such as easy temperament, can similarly contribute to better outcomes. For instance, in adolescents, an easy temperament can instigate their parents to adopt more authoritative practices of parenting, and similarly, the same temperamental qualities can have positive benefits to adapt and cope.
Baumrind consolidated the best components of permissive parenting and authoritarian child rearing, high warmth develops an authoritative style of parenting. The characteristics of the authoritative child rearing style are supportive, responsive, guidance and demanding. Guardians with a definitive style demonstrate high control and high support toward children. Authoritative parents comprehend the emotions of their children and show them how to control themselves and learn from their mistakes. They comprehend the activities of their youngsters in appropriate ways and help in resolving their everyday problems. They depict warm, are emotionally supportive and responsive of their children, and encourage communication to ensure that both parties are satisfied.
Authoritative guardians urge their children to be autonomous and build up their identities, and yet they additionally provide boundaries and rules. Because of the direction children receive, when authoritative parents set guidelines and rules, the children will stick to them faithfully. Authoritative guardians perceive and set expectations fit for a development stage of a child. Parents are strict with the guidelines and give clear motivations to youngsters concerning their firmness on following rules. These kinds of parents are more straightforwardly and open to discussion about any concerns of their children. Two-way communication is common between parties and it helps grows great parent-child relationships. it can be concluded that authoritative parents approach their parents with respect and explain reasons for reward and punishment.
The current research considers authoritative parenting as a more effective style of child-rearing because children are treated respectfully and in warm ways.
Two-way discussions between children and parents help to limit possible problems. In addition, most studies demonstrated that wellbeing outcomes are achieved when parents are nurtured by authoritative parents. The wellbeing outcomes associated with authoritative parenting may diminish stress and depression level in children. Children tend to be happier, appreciated and respected by their parents. Assessed together, the research on parenting style implies that authoritative parenting that combines support and warmth elements is most likely to meet the developmental needs of a child. For the developmental of psychological wellness among children, positive influences of the above parenting exist across ethnicity, gender, family, socioeconomic status and time and family structure.
Impacts of Authoritative Parenting
Emotions and Behavior
While some scholars focus on the beneficial aspect of authoritative parenting, some have established that the style is not effective across all cultures. Some scholars trusted children from economically disadvantaged should be more restricted because they are more exposed to undesired conduct, including aggression. These analysts suggest that such children require less responsiveness and parental control than those from economically endowed families. In assessing the link between the authoritative style of parenting and income level, it is clear that the authoritative style of child-rearing is viewed as the most appropriate style in most households regardless of class cultures. Authoritative child rearing was observed to be related to the low experience of destructive emotions, happiness, high self-esteem, independence, good judgment, and assertiveness, as well as self-sufficiency.
It has been shown that the nature of the above self-assurance is accompanied with the longing to learn and achieve more. Learning based objective involves the goals of people whose principle priorities are to learn from experiences and schoolwork. Children with learning focused goals tend to be more focused on schoolwork and ultimately achieve higher grades. The personal interest of parents in learning is critical in simulating and gaining inquisitiveness and enthusiasm of their children in their life experiences and regulation (Penman, 2009). As children uncover and develop their understanding, the trend can be inspiring, as well as therapeutic.
Authoritative parenting has an impact on the behavior and empathy of children. Definitive attributes of authoritative parenting depicted by parents, such as monitoring, stability, and affection have an effect on the emotions of children. A longitudinal investigation that took a look at the connection between authoritative parenting, child behavioral style, child emotional development discovered that those children under the authoritative style of parenting exhibited a higher level of empathy toward both positive emotions and negative feelings. Gonzalez, Greenwood, and Wenhsu (2001) examined the effortful control of children and their externalizing conduct, and it was discovered that pare...
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