Research Paper on 4 Essential Management Functions: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1727 Words
Date:  2023-05-02


Different management expert has classified the management functions according to their views. However, management is defined as the achievement of some organizational objectives efficiently and effectively through organizing, planning, controlling, and leading corporate resources. (Daft, 2014).

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Planning is regarded as one of the primary and essential management function which aims at identifying an organizational goal and then deciding on the required task and resources that will be essential in attaining them. Planning is a mental process that requires a lot of knowledge as it involves the formulation of policies, and budget segregation to make the management activity to be successful.

Organizing refers to the method of financial, physical, and human resources, and relationships are brought together for the sake of achieving organizational goals. It involves grouping or assigning roles into departments.

Leading is the influence that helps to motivate employees in achieving the required objectives. In leading, shared values, culture is created through communication. Leading involves the informal and social influence sources that a manager may use to inspire action.

Controlling implies the accomplishment measurement against the correction standards of deviation in case there are any organization goals. It also means the activity of monitoring the activities of employees in determining if the organization is moving towards achieving its goals. Controlling also involves establishing performance standards, comparing the real performance against some criteria, and consists of taking corrective action if necessary.

SWOT Analysis of Silver Airlines

SilverAirlines is the company that I would wish to work in if given a chance. The company has been one of the most competitive leaders among the airline industries.

Strengths Weaknesses
Strong leadership Smaller market share
Expanded partnerships with other Silver Airways depends on other airlines for bookings.
Proper developed interline agreements with partners Small brand awareness compared to broad market players
Opportunities Threats
Establish long-route flights with little stops Stiff competition from major competitors such as Jet Blue and Southwest Airlines
More acquisitions to improve market share in the aviation industry Increasing costs in aviation

SWOT Analysis

Silver Airways, Florida's First Airline, and a commercial carrier boast of strong leadership in Florida's aviation industry in terms of expanded services into various destinations. Daily, Silver Airways serves about 30 goals on a more than 200 flight schedule. Services into different destinations and a large number of flight schedules are a source of consumer satisfaction and give Silver Airways a strong leadership (Silver Airways SWOT Analysis, 2019). Expanded services are attributed to the ability of the airline to partner with other airlines to make services readily available for their passengers. Expanded partnership with Jet Blue for bookings and properly developed interline agreements with partners such as US Airways, Delta, and American Airlines are sources of strength for the airline.

Amid the strengths, Silver Airways has weaknesses, including dependency on other airlines for bookings. The airline has not also developed into a significant player in the aviation industry and therefore has a small market share. Well established airlines have larger market shares, and unless Silver Airline continues expanding its services, remaining competitive becomes a challenge. The low brand awareness compared to broad market players is also a weakness for Silver Airways.

Amid the weaknesses, Silver Airways has opportunities to gain significant market shares to become more competitive. Opportunities for growth and development include the establishment of long routes without stop-overs for efficiency and passenger comfortability, more acquisitions to improve market shares, and improvement of flights into business and leisure fliers.

Silver Airways does not have a significant market share and faces threats that developing airlines are subjected to. Some of the risks that Silver Airways face include stiff competition from major competitors such as Jet Blue and Southwest Airlines. The rising numbers of Low-Cost Carriers are a threat to the successful penetration of airlines into the aviation industry. The increasing costs of services of aviation, such as increasing costs of fuel, are challenges likely to plunge the airline into bankruptcy. Also, the rising global concern about safety is a threat that almost every player in the aviation industry. Improving safety measures is a concern that every player in the aviation industry must put in place as a way of establishing consumer loyalty.

Strategic, Tactical, Operational, and Contingency Planning

Strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning are integrally related.

Strategic planning involves a company defining its decision-making strategy in allocating its resources in pursuing this strategy. This type of planning deals with a whole organization instead of an isolated unit.

The tactical method of planning is a low level of planning, which emphasizes the ongoing operations in parts of the organization. Most managers use this plan to outline what an organization should do to ensure it achieves success. These plans are mostly developed in production areas.

Operational planning is linking strategic goals to tactical plans. It supports the tactical plan implementation and operational goals achievement with a timeframe of less than a year.

Contingency planning helps in preparing for any dramatic change in the organizational environment. (McKeown & Wright, 2011).

Benchmarking and Core Competencies

Benchmarking is the search for the best practices in the industry that leads to superior performance. (Wireman, 2010). Benchmarking is also regarded as an ongoing improvement measurement tool that is used by companies that are striving to achieve some superior performance in their marketplace. On the other hand, core competencies are an essential business process that represents a core effort. They are characterized by transactions that indirectly or directly influence the organizational perception of the customer.

Reasons for Employees, mainly Managers should be concerned with Adapting to Change

The world, population, economy, and technology is changing every day. Organizations and employees, therefore, should embrace these changes to attain a competitive edge. Employees change is crucial because it allows them to learn new skills, explore opportunities, and exercise their creativity through new ideas and commitment. Employees adapting to change will help in managing a successful organization to improve and increase employee's morale. However, these factors may affect productivity.

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Abraham Maslow developed the theory of hierarchy needs in year 1940s to 50s. The approach is still relevant in today's world because it helps in understanding motivation, personal development, and management training. Abraham Maslow's theory is demonstrated using five levels of motivation that are: self-actualization, love and belongingness needs, safety needs, esteem, and physiological needs.

The need for self-actualization is the self-fulfillment level, where one realizes personal potential. The esteem needs include self-esteem or achievements. Love needs to involve family, relationships, and affection. Safety needs require protection from security, law, or order and stability. Lastly, is the physiological need that includes air, water, warmth, sex, and sleep. The lowest level is made up of various basic needs, and the most sophisticated needs are at the top. When one meets a low-level needs, then it is possible to move to the next level. Moreover, as an individual progresses up the pyramid, needs become social and psychological.

Theory X and Theory Y Managers

Mc Gregor Theory X represents the authoritarian style of management, which emphasizes productivity on the fair day work concept. The theory beliefs that administration counteracts with a human tendency to avoid work. X theory is based on the assumption that employees dislike work and are lazy, not ambitious, and are self-centered. Theory X assumes that money is the employees' primary source of motivation.

On the other hand, theory Y represents a participative management style. In this theory, the managers support the assumption that employees are self-motivated and directed to carry out the objectives set by the organization. Both approaches were ideas developed by Mc Gregor to encapsulate a distinction between various management styles. X and Y theories are based on some premises that dictate that management should assemble all production factors that include human to get work done.

Six Steps In Selecting Employees.

Employee selection involves various steps in soliciting the possible information on the right candidate that is suitable for the job. The process begins with:

  • Screening: This is the first stage where the employee fills some application that includes the candidate's personal information, achievement, biodata, and experiences. Based on this process, only the shortlisted candidates will be called for the selection test. (Anbuvelan, 2007). The selection test will seek to know more about the candidate, where it may help in identifying personal aptitude, personality, and interest.
  • Interview: Employee interviews will help the employer find more about the candidates' experience and seek to know whether they are suitable for the job.
  • Checking the references: A lot of organizations ask the candidates to provide for references. The recommendations may be persons associated with one's education institutions or any other person who may be aware of the behaviors and ability of the candidate.
  • Physical examination: This activity is carried out to ascertain the physical fitness and standards of the candidate. Some organizations conduct general checks on applicants to confirm is the candidate has any major physical issue, which may affect one in carrying out his or her duties.
  • Approval: If an individual is confirmed to be suitable, then the appropriate authority of the organization approves the candidates and is then informed of reporting for the duty.

The last step is the placement stage, where after all formalities are complete, the approved candidate is placed on the job or on the probation basis where they may be observed keenly and may later be employed permanently.

Case study on the Kodak Corporation

Reason for Kodak's Failure

For about a hundred years, Kodak was the leading photography industry with various inventions and innovations. Kodak's turning point began when photography began shifting towards the digital line. However, Kodak changed to digital at a late stage. It developed a new direction of printers where they made expensive printers and inexpensive ink while the company's competitors were selling expensive ink.

When smartphones became the biggest fish in the ocean where people shifted from printing pictures to storing them on their digital devices or even sharing them on social media, Kodak corporation failed strategically in failure to reinvent itself. The management was unable to embrace the newly invented business models where they were unable to realize that the online photo sharing was the new trend instead of shifting in the printing business.

Kodak also lacked strategic creativity, which led to misinterpretation of the type of industry it was operating in. Kodak Corporation management tackled problems through some rigid means...

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Research Paper on 4 Essential Management Functions: Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling. (2023, May 02). Retrieved from

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