This context has a wide area of a study exploring the development of human being s over a long period. It involves the examination of how people react with each other and how they develop within a period or throughout their entire life. It also includes the evolution of some cultures in general. The researcher on the developmental stages needs to know more about how people to understand and adapt to their new environments within a period. The development of a human is by the cognitive, emotions, social capabilities, and intellectual and how it functions over a given time from infancy throughout to the old age. The child psychology was the first focus of the research; however since the 20th-century much information about infants and adults have been collected and learned.
There have been theories that are based on development. Since development is steps of age-related changes then occurs within an individual, it happens in a period and on lifespan. These theories are from famous researchers such as Sigmund Freud, Erikson Jean Piaget not forgetting Lawrence Kohlberg. They cane with a description of developmental as a series of stages that an individual must pass in his lifespan.
They further said that stages are periods in the development in that individuals experience average behavior change and establish specific capabilities. These stages, however, share some of the assumptions such that, a single pass through stages in a unique order, with each age creating on the capacities developed in the previous phase .they also assumed that age is related to scenes. In every developmental stage, it is discontinuous with qualitatively different capabilities that arise in that stage (Collins et al.2011).
Freud believed that childhood was the most critical firsts developmental state of an individual. The Australian psychiatrist described development as the series of stages. He came up with the findings that the personality developed at the age around five years old. Just like Sigmund theory, Erik also believed that childhood was an essential part of the developmental stage. He further thought that an individual's personality development would take an individual's entire life. There was a finding that in every step a person faced a new task, and it, however, depended on the personal skills of handling these tasks. Erik found out the unique developmental stages.
After the first year of birth babies however will depend on their adults for all the services and requirement that they need like food, clothing, and security. This call for the trust and mistrust between the child and the adult. If the person king care of the child meets the needs of that child accordingly, the babies will, however, develop a sense of touch towards them, and this will build their trust to that person. The baby will, however, create a sense of security from that person. In case a child is not given what she wants at that particular time, she will develop a sense of insecurity hence mistrust.
Between a certain age of about one to three years old, the toddler begins to have her now independence and will start learning new tasks and rolls such as feeding themselves and going to the toilets, they will further know how to dress. Depending on how the toddlers will face these new tasks, they can, however, develop a sense of autonomy, a sense of doubt and having shame about themselves (Developmental psychology. 2011). In Erikson's theory, it is essential for it has more about the personality and the stability and change of person personality. At a certain degree, you will find out that someone's character will tend to be stable since childhood experiences can influence a person event during his adult life. Also, personality will also develop throughout life since a person will face new challenges and an obstacle during his developmental stages.tnere is only one demerit about Erikson's developmental theory; he just had a focus on one typical pattern. His approach did not address the many difference among individuals.
Jean Piaget's theory of the developments is considered to be among the frit stage theories; Jean is also considered to be the first person to figure out about the progress in psychology. Jean had believed that the entire individual passed through the four stages of development. Before an individual move to the next step, he had to give through one step at a time an individual should face challenges that an individual must face. In jean theory, there are stages that a person moves, in the sensorimotor stage, it happens within the two years of life. During this stage, babies are given a chance to learn about and have experience of the world. In this stage, language development is essential and the permanence of the object. In the preoperational stage, it lasts for about seven years.
In this stage, a child will have and use a sense of thinking. They, however, learn how to use symbols to make them understand better on specific concepts and ideas. When a child is at the age of 7-12, they are in a concrete operational stage, in that case, they are likely to show how much they can logically think and they show reasoning that is continuously increasing. In this final stage, the formal operational is where it typically starts at the age of first and lasts throughout his adulthood time. The individuals in this stage are considered to have a better understanding of their ideas (LOWRY-LEHNEN et al.2015).
From the four stages starting with infancy, we see that during the infancy period, it starts at birth and a child will acquire the usage of language later after two years. Beside the reflexes that are inherited, it helps them to get the required nourishment and can be able to react at any danger that may arise. The newborn is equipped with a specific visual pattern which includes the human face recognition, and they can tell you hear certain sounds that are made around them. Within a period, the baby can be able to know her mother by facial recognition. They also have the essence of showing sensitivity to the tones, the flow of rhythm and an individual's sound that makes to the speech.
However, the infants are discovered to possess an advanced in facial recognition and recalling memory. Due to these factors, a child can be able to get a better understanding of its environment. The infant's physical interactions with their surroundings advance them from pure reflex that is uncoordinated. To more coordinated activities, they can repeat them intentionally since they can be interested or because they have gained the best surrounding achievement. At the age of 18, the individual will, however, be in a position to start solving any problematic problem that he might be facing either by meant imagining of certain activities of they may use the trial and error experimentation. Therefore we can conclude that during this first stage a child is in a position to have a good memory and a recall memory. A child can be able to identify her mother from other people by using the visual sight of by hearing her voice (Newman et al.2012).
In the second stage, we can conclude that during this stage a child extends from the age of two to and of thirteen. A child in this stage will be struggling to know the language; this will be a huge stride that will be achieved by the child. Children will first start to comprehend words bere fixing them and making a complete sentence and speech. In their cognitive abilities, the child an make changes from depending on the solely on things such as concrete, the tangible reality to performing the legitimate activities on the symbolic materials. A two-year-old child can be in a position to behave as though the surrounding world is a permanent place, and they are independent of their perception.
These codes will develop new abilities that will lead to the child's moral development that started during his childhood period. It depends on the actions which may lead to aim which may lead to punishment and develops to more creation of more general regulation of their behavior so that it may limit the parental regard and the approval. Shifting in moral reasoning to an individual is aimed to avoid the internal guilt, and the self-reclamation marks the passage from the childhood and adolescent which then transmits to adulthood. Therefore all of this advancement of emotions will enhance the child's social skills and its functioning (Scheck, S. 2014).
In the adolescent stage, it begins at the age of 12 to the age of 19 in adulthood. In this stage, the individual is in a position to come up with their hypothesis; they also have to sit on them. Therefore they will make reasonable conclusions on it. The formal thinking of the adolescent same as the adults tend to be self-consciously deductive and are systematic.basing on emotions, the adolescent individual will be trying as much as possible to take control of his sexual urges which are direct, and they start to come up with their sexual duties and the relationships.
During this stage an individual will tend to lessen his emotions dependence on their parents and develop set of values maturely, they, however, start to be responsible for their actions and how they are relating with others. When a child starts developing a sense of independence, this will, therefore, create another transition of the individual from the adolescent stage to adulthood stage.
The adulthood period is an optimum and mental functioning when the individual is mental functioning, and they are emotional and have the social capabilities at their peak to meet their needs and demand of their careers, children or marriage. Some of the physiologists have derived several periods in the transition of the adulthood to middle adulthood which loves the reassessment of one's life and decision making on the new goal in life. In the middle 30s, many people will develop as hence of limiting their time, and the behaviors of the previous expression may be given up favoring the new behaviors. During the middle age period, an individual will adjust their potential of the past and the limitation of the future (Young, G. 2011).
The developmental psychology is therefore concerned with meant elements which affect human development. Most of the theories have agreed that both the biological and the surrounding factors have contributed to the individual event, but there have been some of the disagreement about the same. Having a better understanding of the particular types of human aspect development will give a researcher a greater understanding of the issues that are involved in during construction.
In conclusion, the research has also stipulated out that development is a continuous process that occurs in different steps. There are questions which arise about whether growth varies from one culture to another and how various theories have come out with their finding of the evolution. However, none of the approaches have been able or have accepted the attempt of explaining the developmental process. The one particular essential aspect of the development psychology is that there has been very widely researched in cognitive development. The behavioral theories believe that individual is most often to be passive, but the environmental elements mold them through the operant and the conditioning which are classical.
Collins, D. J., Abbott, A., & Richards, H. (2011). Performance Psychology E-Book: A Practitioner's Guide.
Developmental psychology. (2011). Memphis, TN: Books LLC.
LOWRY-LEHNEN, T. H. E. R. E. S. A. (2015). Theories of human growth and developmental psychology. Place of publication not identified: CREATESPACE.
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Scheck, S. (2014). T...
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