Anaphylaxis may be described as a systemic reaction that affects numerous organ systems as a result of cellular occurrences in basophils and mast cells which lead to the release of mediators. This implies that the comprehension of degranulation and mast cell activation is fundamental to comprehending the mechanisms that stimulate anaphylaxis. In essence, the physiological progression of anaphylactic shock may be attributed to the accumulation of the high-affinity receptors for immunoglobulin (Ig) E (Muraro et al., 2014). As soon as the activation process begins, basophils and mast cells immediately secret preformed mediators from granules that contain histamine which stimulates vasodilation and increased heart rate.
Anaphylaxis Treatment Protocol
Patients who experience severe anaphylaxis should primarily be exposed to the standard interventions which include cardiac monitoring, high-flow oxygen, and intravenous (IV) access. Such measures are appropriate even for asymptomatic patients who have been re-exposed to a particular allergen. At this stage, measures beyond essential life support (BLS) are not necessary for patients experiencing local reactions (Worm et al., 2014). Mostly, the ideal intervention for a particular patient is dependent on the response to treatment and the seriousness of the initial response. Patients who portray non-life threatening symptoms may be observed for a period of between 4-6 hours after treatment has been administered before being discharged. Nonetheless, patients with severe anaphylaxis that may be characterized by adverse respiratory and cardiovascular symptomologies ought to be referred to the emergency department care where more critical care may be accorded.
How Gender and Age affects the Process of Anaphylactic Shock
Research conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) involved the use of histamine alongside Immunoglobulin to induce anaphylaxis in mice. The findings indicated that the female mice were much more aggrieved than their male counterparts as their symptoms were more pronounces and prevailed for a longer duration. Additionally, the presence of estradiol in female mice triggers the release if endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) which made the allergic reactions took place more severe (Simons et al., 2015). Equally important is the fact that there is an augmented risk of worse outcomes in teenagers and young adults especially those with comorbid conditions such as asthma.
Muraro, A., Roberts, G., Worm, M., Bilo, M. B., Brockow, K., Fernandez Rivas, M., ... & BindslevJensen, C. (2014). Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the E uropean A cademy of A llergy and C linical I mmunology. Allergy, 69(8), 1026-1045.
Worm, M., Eckermann, O., Dolle, S., Aberer, W., Beyer, K., Hawranek, T., ... & Niggemann, B. (2014). Triggers and treatment of anaphylaxis: an analysis of 4000 cases from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 111(21), 367.
Simons, F. E. R., Ebisawa, M., Sanchez-Borges, M., Thong, B. Y., Worm, M., Tanno, L. K., ... & Sheikh, A. (2015). 2015 update of the evidence base: World Allergy Organization anaphylaxis guidelines. World Allergy Organization Journal, 8(1), 1.
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