With the increasing economic and social progress, China, just as the rest of the world, has experienced a rising trend of the aging process that has resulted in the acceleration of the incidences of high rates of mental disorders and increased cases of psycho-behavioral challenges. These incidences have shown an upward trend in most parts of China and the rest of the world. Currently, the diseases resulting from mental disorders have been a threat to nations and have been listed as second among the deadly epidemics in the whole world. Mental disorders are non-communicable diseases that account for almost 13% In China (Deng & Harris, 2008). However. It is imperative to understand that most of the research on disabilities has been conducted about and in western countries. Asian countries have cultures that differ significantly from their western counterparts (Hardy & Woodcock, 2014). To see what practices created in the west could transfer to Asian cultures, an understanding of the various impacts Asian cultures have on special education would need to be developed. As a step in the process of developing effective and culturally relevant particular education practices in Asian countries, China was studied (Lim & Thaver, 2014). "The purpose of this ethnographic research was to understand the cultural perceptions of disabilities and the impact on special education for teachers at schools in China."
- How do cultures shape students' perceptions of scientists?
- What counts as evidence of inclusive education?
- Why is Inclusive Education important to a country?
This study aimed to find out the social impression of inabilities and the effect on a custom curriculum for educators at schools in China.
The goal of the research was to recognize the medical condition's cultural norms and the effects on teachers in China on primary schooling.
The two principle subjects discovered were the move considering those with handicaps from disrespect to respect as well as the necessity to utilize the qualities in the community to proceed with the optimistic vicissitudes in China (Parmenter, 2014). Numerous instructors were found to want to assist understudies with handicaps yet felt they needed more information. China is finding a way to help those with inabilities more readily; be that as it may, the absence of research on Asian societies' effect on a specialized curriculum has made utilizing socially proper and viable techniques troublesome (Brine, 2010). Moving toward a specialized curriculum from the collectivistic outlook, one that thinks instructing kids with handicaps is useful for China is the proposed initial step, trailed by assessing present training techniques to perceive how compelling they might be in the community, and giving general training of inabilities for all instructors.
Limited study has been carried out on the impact of culture on distinct Education in China. What research was found could be divided into three overarching categories with comparisons between western cultures, mainly the United States, and China. The first section, disability, and society look at the overall view of those with disabilities within the different cultures of China and the United States (Parmenter, 2014). The last section, instructional methods, look at the ways students with disabilities are taught in different cultures. After performing the literature review, the absence of research examining the cultural influence on Chinese special education became evident. More research in this area could prove beneficial to improving special education globally and domestically.
Disability and Society
In the world, those who feel they are ordinary have historically erected boundaries to create a society that benefits them and rarely benefits but often excludes those with disabilities. Often, those who are undereducated or have low achievement are those that end up facing long-term unemployment and exclusion (Brine, 2010). Even with the institution of compulsory education, many students are leaving the school system (Brine, 2010).
Mass Education has rapidly spread throughout the modern world, even in the poorest of countries (Bolie et al., 1985). Bolie et al. (1985) explained education had been generated by worldwide social movements in modern history (p. 146). Many believe that special education should be either inclusion, where students are educated with their peers regardless of disabilities, or exclusion, where students are taught separately from peers because they have limitations (Corbett, 1996).
Globalization is increasing the interconnectedness of the world and affecting many different aspects of a person's life. Views from all over the world are now able to influence one person. The Chinese government has begun advocating for the rights of students with disabilities in recent decades. Still, little research has been conducted on the culture and its impact on special Education (Eleweke & Rodda, 2010).
Significance of The Study
First, collectivism can be used to promote the acceptance of those with disabilities. An emphasis on collectivism concerning people with disabilities can be implemented through the explanations made by school administrators and teachers on how accepting those with disabilities would benefit society through creating classes with more individualized education for students with and without disabilities. Second, teachers encouraged China to continue enacting more policies that support those with disabilities. The policies China has already enacted are good and should be more broadly enforced. Lastly, more opportunities throughout China for teacher training could be created. China already has opportunities for teachers to receive training in certain places.
"The purpose of this study was to understand the cultural perceptions of disabilities and the impact on special education for teachers at schools in China." No current research exists on this subject matter. Beginning research on Chinese culture and special education could prove helpful with research in special education in other cultural environments outside of western cultures. A lack of research on special education within China was evident through the literature review.
Qualitative ethnographic research was conducted in China with Chinese teachers on their understanding and views of special education. The two major themes were found to be in the change in light of disabilities in recent years and the need to continue to change through building on the value of collectivism inherent within China (Pang, 2012). China can use this research as an encouragement to foster continued development in special education. China has made a great deal of progress in educational practices, and continued growth within education is encouraged for the benefit of the students, families, teachers, and society at large.
Participants involved in the Chinese education system completed a questionnaire and were interviewed with a predetermined set of questions used to understand what view they think their country has, what opinion they hold, and what they think of how their country views and helps those with disabilities. The interviews were recorded and then typed out verbatim. They were analyzed for common themes along with the questionnaire given and then coded, which was then used to develop proposed methods of special education to be implemented.
Role of the Researcher
As the researcher of this qualitative study, I am the human instrument who collected, analyzed, and categorized the data. Because I was deciphering the data, it was inevitably interpreted through the lens of my personal beliefs of education, which have a western, American perspective. To keep myself consciously and intentionally aware of my assumptions and biases, I kept a reflective journal throughout the data collection process to document personal thoughts and ideas and to attempt to separate those thoughts and views from the data I collected.
The setting for all the interviews and questionnaires were three major cities in north-eastern China, and the schools were dispersed throughout the cities in more urban areas (Jensen et al., 2015). Teachers were interviewed in their Chinese schools or workplaces. Interviews took place in various schools across China with the differing student body and faculty sizes. Of the three individual education schools, one was a school for the blind and went through elementary school, one was government run and had no set grade levels, and one was privately owned and had no set grade levels.
The selection process for participants involved purposefully choosing respondents based on their involvement in the education system in China (Hobart & Colleges, 2009). The purpose of this selection was to receive the most cultural viewpoints from those directly involved in educating students in China (Florian, 2014). Participants were teachers in Chinese schools, working as a teacher for at least one year, and were Chinese nationals. Participants also came from a variety of Chinese schools such as a small private school and an individual education school.
Several data collection methods were used. A questionnaire with demographics was first given to the participants (Balestrini & Stoeger, 2018). The second section of the survey contained questions about self-efficacy and attitudes teachers had about students with disabilities and special education. Information from how the classes were conducted was used in the data collections.
The first analysis was of the questionnaires filled out by the participants. Questionnaire data were analyzed through identifying similarities in the teachers' responses, coding the answers, and grouping the codes into similar categories, which were then reduced further down into themes (Borovay, 2018). I then examined the information collected from the questionnaires and field notes and used that data to support the items found from the interviews and from what I observed in classes to triangulate the data (Patton, 2015).
The literature review revealed a shortage of studies on special education in China. Qualitative ethnographic work on their perception and perspectives about special education was performed in China with Chinese students. The developments in the context of handicaps in recent years have shown the two fundamental problems and the importance of continuing to improve by drawing on the significance of Chinese collectivism. In the end, China has succeeded and will aim to enhance education for all of its citizens.
Armstrong, F. (1999). Inclusion, curriculum, and the struggle for space in the school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 3(1), 75-87. Retrieved from https://www-tandfonlinecom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/abs/10.1080/136031199285200
Balestrini, D. P., & Stoeger, H. (2018). Substantiating a special cultural emphasis on learning and education in East Asia. High Ability Studies, 29(1), 79-106. doi: 10.1080/13598139.2017.1423281
Bolie, J., Ramirez, F., & Meyer, J. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative Education Review, 29(2), 145-170. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1188401
Boracay, L. A., Shore, B. M., Caccese, C., Yang, E., Hua, O. (2018). Flow, achievement level, and inquiry-based learning. Journal of Advanced Academics, 30(1), 74-106. doi:10.1177/1932202X18...
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