The government of the United States is playing a role in regulating domestic and international transportation. The trend of this regulation has drastically changed over the last 15 years. Therefore, that there has been a reduction in price controls; while safety, security and environmental controls have recorded a notable increase. However, some government agencies have ceased to exist, or their functions have been rolled to other agencies. That has led to the formation of new agencies, and the trend has never been more visible or relevant as it has been since 2001.
This paper will discuss The U.S. Department of Commerce, The Transport and Security Administration, U.S border and Customs Protection and The Office of Munitions Controls and their roles in regulating domestic and international transportation. Each of these agencies will be discussed in details citing the controls exercised by them and how they affect supply chain, transportation and logistics. The paper will also look at how their focus, goals and regulations have changed in the recent years and their current priorities.
The U.S. Department of Commerce
Laudon & Traver (2013) explains that this is a cabinet-level department under the government of the United States whose mission is to promote and encourage the development of business via growth, partnering with other companies and through entrepreneurship. The U.S. Department of Commerce was created on 14th February 1903 (Laudon &Traver, 2013). This creation was based on an act of Congress as a Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was created during the reign of Theodore Roosevelt. President William Howard, who succeeded Roosevelt, approved legislation that managed to separate commerce and labour. During its formation, the first secretary was William C. Redfield, and its longest-serving Secretary was Herbert C. Hoover. In summary, eight secretaries of the department served less than one year, and other two succumbed while holding office. The department has also had three different women secretaries and two African-American and Asian-American respectively
The purpose of this department is to promote the creation of employment opportunities and growth of the economy through making sure that fair and reciprocal trade is enhanced (COMMERCE, 2017). The department also provides information that is vital in supporting commerce. It achieves this by nurturing innovation through setting values and standards which is achieved when they conduct research and development
Laudon &Traver (2013) also asserts that the department promotes international trade. Its supply chain management ensures that the products of manufactures and vendors land in the hands of the consumer. It also plays the role of guaranteeing physical flows that enable movement and storage of goods and materials. As a result, the department ensures that commodities entering into the U.S. follow the right procedures. It facilitates the transportation of goods produced within the U.S borders and marketing the goods. The department ensures information flows by enabling supply chain partners coordinate and promote its plans to ensure the flow of goods.
The Transport Security Administration
According to Schillemans (2013), this department was founded in 2001 when the Congress passed Aviation and Transportation Security Act following the Sept 11 attack by terrorists. The agency was mandated to hire security personnel at 450 airports. It is an agency in the Department of Homeland Security. The primary function of this agency is to protect the transportation networks in the United States from any form of attack. These include airports, highways, seaports, railways, buses and mass transit systems.
The agency has a total of 16 divisions which performs specific roles. The Office of Business Transformation and Culture develops management and strategies for operation. Schillemans (2013) further says that the Office of Intelligence and Analysis performs the role of doing intelligence investigations on the transport networks in the county. That helps in identifying risks that would affect the transport sector and coming up with ways of mitigating such risks. In general, the Transportation and Security administration performs threat assessments, maintains security concerning all forms of transportation and does an assessment of security vulnerabilities (Schillemans, 2013). Through this way, they develop appropriate strategies that help in preventing and eliminating such risks before they happen. They also have a department that handles and trains dogs to detect bombs, explosives and other dangerous materials.
Sulmona, Edgington& Denike (2014) explains that this agency plays a significant role in aiding the operations of the supply chain, transport and logistics. It ensures that the products supplied are delivered safely to intended markets. The agency also works to restrict the operations of illegal trade such as smuggling of drugs within the territory of the United States with the help The National Explosives Detection Canine Team Program by performing cargo screenings.
Through the office of Acquisition, the agency also performs the role of the supply chain in handling major purchases through giving out contracts. This office also researches to promote the development of the agency owing to the dynamic nature of the society. The Office of Acquisition gives out grants and also performs other financial services.
Currently, this agency is in the process of reviewing its programs to examine how it can adjust efficiently to overcome the threat landscape and also to solve the internal staffing matters. There are elaborations on strategies that this agency can take to help it achieve its missions effectively achieve its objectives and purpose of securing and protecting the nations transport systems.
The U.S. Customs and Border Protection
It is one of the largest institutions which enforce the law that is mandated to keep terrorists away from the borders of the United States. The other functions are regulation and facilitation of international trade. They also gather import duties, implement and enforce U.S regulations that concern trade, immigration and customs. Generally, this agency protects the borders of the United States from danger. It prevents people from getting into the country illegally and entry of illegal weaponry into the United States.
According to Sarkesian, Williams & Cimbala (2012), this agency traces its history in 1789, July 31st when the U.S. Congress passed a law that recognized import tax. They realized that no established agency would perform the function of collecting and enforcing import tax and therefore after a few weeks, it established the U.S. Customs service (Sarkesian, Williams & Cimbala, 2012). Later on, in 1891, the Congress inaugurated the Office of Superintendent of Immigration. Matters related to immigration were the responsibility of the federal government and not the states. Later, on March 1, 2003, the Customs and Border Protection was established.
The agency consists of specialized cops who include forensic scientists, trade specialists operating at international levels, public affairs officers among other specialists. Their current priorities are mainly to secure the borders, and the success of the nature of the security of the borders of the United States is as a result of their continuous efforts. Due to this, order security has enabled efficient facilitation and transportation of goods safely across the borders. The supply chain of goods to their required destinations and logistics has been running smoothly as a result of this. Similarly, the nation has seen an incorporated loom to international security. Trading has also been enhanced due to the safe nature of international travel and trade. If this agency ceases to perform its functions, it will affect the security of transportation, supply chain and logistics.
The Office of Munitions Controls
The office of Munitions control falls under the department of U.S. Export Controls. This department unifies all the other Departments of State such as Commerce, Homeland Security, Defense, Energy among other various departments. The U.S. Export Controls oversees export control and ensures that there is no proliferation of illegal items into the borders of the United States.
Sulmona, Edgington & Denike (2014) further explains that the Office of Munitions Controls safeguards the United States and its allies by ensuring that weapons of mass destruction do not find their way within the borders of the country. The office works at reducing threats that would emanate from illegal ammunition and also works on setting up strategies that will the future, help to prevent any form of threats that would result in form munitions.
The agency also conducts cargo screening on transported goods and ensures that there is no proliferation of illegal munitions. Since it was formed, its goals and regulations have been changing over time to keep with the environmental demands which keep on changing and also to prevent a clash of roles with other agencies that are also concerned with security. However, they work hand in hand with these other agencies and various departments of the state to help ensure that transportation and logistics are very safe and sound.
Foreign Agency: Civil Aviation Administration of China
The Civil Aviation Administration of China is an agency that exists out of the borders of the United States. It is an aviation authority in China that falls under the Ministry of Transport of the Peoples Republic of China. The primary role that this authority plays is the supervision of civil aviation and examination of safety issues in the aviation department. The agency was formed on 2nd November 1949, just after the Republic of China was founded. It was formed to run the non-military aviation in the country and to provide air travel service. Upon its inception, it was managed by People's Liberation Army Air Force. The State Council took over the control of the airline in 1980. By 1987, it was divided into different airlines, named after China regions. It became a subordinate of Ministry of Transport in 2008.
Being an airline, CAAC helps in transportation of cargoes and goods. This helps in both local and international trade. Wang et al., (2014) explains that the agency manages the airlines of China and performs the functions of issuing licenses, controlling and approving routes, pricing of passengers and cargoes, strategic planning for airline industry maintenance of safety through policies and regulations and negotiation of air agreements. These functions are detrimental to the supply chain, transportation, and logistics in China.
From the preceding, it is very imperative to note that transportation, logistics, and supply chain is essential for any form of trade in every country. This paper has discussed the various agencies set up by the government of the United States to help in the facilitation of transport and logistics to ensure that both local and international trade takes place smoothly. Domestic and international transport, therefore, depends on the above government departments and agencies to ensure safe operations.
COMMERCE, S. O. (2017).Department of Commerce. Washington, DC.
Laudon, K. C., &Traver, C. G. (2013). E-commerce. Pearson.
Sarkesian, S. C., Williams, J. A., &Cimbala, S. J. (2012). US national security: policymakers, processes, and politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Schillemans, T. (2013).Moving beyond the clash of interests: On stewardship theory and the relationships between central government departments and public agencies. Public Management Review, 15(4), 541-562.
Sulmona, L. G., Edgington...
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