1. Three Fundamental Categories of Conflict that Occur During a Project's Life Cycle
The general types of conflict during project life cycle include schedules, priorities, technical factors, labor requirements, administrative procedures, personality conflicts and administrative procedures. The nature of the project concerning the size, location, and stakeholders determine the kind of conflict that is incurred (Meredith & Mantel, 2011). There are three fundamental categories of conflict:
There might be a conflict resulting from the different goals and expectations that arise from the groups working on the project. For instance, the participants of a dam project can have hopes of collecting water from an aquifer while another participant may wish to use the rain and running water as the primary source.
Uncertainty regarding the person who has the authority to make decisions.
During the project life, there usually some interpersonal conflicts that arise between people who are the critical parties-at-interest in the project (Meredith & Mantel, 2011).
With the conflict mentioned above, it is clear that the day-to-day practices are usually in line with the different units of organization which is said to differ in technical judgment and objectives. A conflict of interest usually occurs from the fact that both technical and administrative procedures are relevant in the overall process of project management. Another cause of interpersonal conflict is that human beings are an integral part of all projects thus cooperation will be encountered with a clash.
2. List and Describe the Three Basic Causes of Change in Projects
The three primary causes of change in project life are:
These conditions are described as the unanticipated and unbudgeted changes which are caused by the state of the site or weather conditions.
This cause of change is described as a factor that is created by programming evolution which is attributed to the shift to the underlying basis of design as captured and identified in the project's baseline.
This investable effect might occur in the process by which the project is carried out. Humans tend to fail to provide timely and complete delivery of events that require a contractual commitment. For example, if a project that aims at making a dam involves an individual who is supposed to tap the water during rainy season, performance failure may occur if the individual fails to avail himself or herself during the opportune moment that the rain is available (Meredith & Mantel, 2011).
3. Five Strategies Used to Deal with Conflict
Blake and Mouton (1964) communicated the following five methods of conflict resolution:
Since all humans portray their weaknesses, it is easy to refrain than to retreat from a given argument. It is thereby outlined that silence is golden thus conflicts of words and disagreements can be minimized when the parties keep silent.
It is a process of playing down differences and focusing on emphasizing common interests and the issues that can create divisions among the project management group.
Bargaining and splitting the difference enables the creation of an intermediate position. It is, therefore, a time when two conflicting opinions are compromised to attain a common idea.
In case there is a win-lose situation, the participants become antagonists and not collaborators. There is need to create a victor and a vanquished.
In this problem-solving approach, there is always an open exchange of ideas concerning the problem according to the way each person sees it. There is need to work through the difference to see a solution which is optimal to both situations.
Blake, R., R. & Mouton, J., S. (1964). The Managerial Grid, Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Meredith, J. R., & Mantel Jr, S. J. (2011). Project management: a managerial approach. John Wiley & Sons.
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