Sleeping problems are common among individuals which is associated with psychiatric conditions. The psychiatric disorders include Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Bipolar Disorder, (BD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Schizophrenia, and Alcoholism are all interrelated (Krystal, 2012). According to Sutton (2014), 30% of the time within one year, people experience these psychiatric disorders and sleep problems, 30% of insomnia is experienced in a week. The two conditions overlap and are related. It thus requires the treatment of the psychiatric effects to improve the quality of sleep. A long-lasting view exists on psychiatric conditions and its treatment ends up increasing sleep is supported by contemporary evidence. It states that treating disorders can improve on the psychiatric disorders outcome. The treatment comes in the form of both psychiatric and sleep. However, some treatments may increase sleep disturbances and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.
Major Depressive Disorder
Insomnia and hyper insomnia are the diagnostics for MDD. Sleep difficulty occurs for 90% of such patients. They experience difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep, lack of enough sleep quality, nightmares as well as daytime sleepiness. Polysomnographically is part of one having problems in falling asleep and staying asleep as well. MDD patients have alterations in the sleep stages. They have a short Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. Besides, they have a prolonged sleep onset as well as difficulty maintaining sleep. There are lots of depression episodes. Sleep changes cannot be treated through medical means as they are not limited as in the case of MDD. The changes affect individuals with psychiatric disorders.
People with a bipolar disorder at the manic stage experience a decline in sleep. Patients have a reduced need for sleep which may not be the same as insomnia. They decrease their sleep time to some degree without affecting the quality of life. Insomnia is different from BDG because, for insomnia, it changes the quality of the patient's life. The restoration process for people with bipolar disorders is problematic because it requires them to sleep more than the sleep they need.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Just as MDD and BD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder is characterized by a change in sleep. The alteration in sleep through difficulty falling or staying asleep is a common feature in half of those with GAD. Patients experience longer sleep onset, more awake time at night and a greater number of arousals. Contrary to BD and MDD, GAD does not have alterations in the percentage of nights compromised by REM sleep
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD patients have sleeping problems because of the distressing dreams which cause problems in falling asleep. Such patients diminished total sleep because of the disturbance from the experienced they have had in the past.
Unlike the above mentioned psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia is not a main feature. Apart from having sleeping difficulties, remaining asleep and declining sleep quality are common for the people with schizophrenia. Patients have a shift in the circadian rhythm which affects the tendency to sleep at night and leads to them sleeping during the day.
Alcohol abuse and dependency interferes with sleep. People with both types of alcoholism experience insomnia where it is prevalent to be between 36% and 72% (Krystal, 2012). The wakefulness is a result of the effects caused by alcoholism and it has sleep-promoting effects to some individuals.
Krystal, A. (2012). Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep. Neurologic Clinics, 30(4), 1389-1413. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2012.08.018
Sutton, E. L. (2014). Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues. Medical Clinics, 98(5), 1123-1143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2014.06.009
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