For this rebuttal argument paper, the selected topic is gender identity. According to the article titled Transgender People Suffer from Gender Identity Disorders, argues that transgender individuals suffer from gender identity disorder (GID). According to the article, children suffering from GID may show a great desire to be the opposite sex and may believe that they will grow up to be members of the opposite sex. On the other hand, GID in adults result in characteristics in adults that show the desire to live as an individual of the opposite sex and may have a strong desire to get rid of their biologically assigned genitals. Furthermore, according to the article, such individuals may dress and portray mannerisms belonging to the opposite gender (Roman, 2011). The article classifies such individuals as suffering from a disorder that can be treated through therapy, counselling, or sex reassignment surgery.
The evidence the author uses to making the claim that GID is a disorder is that it leads to a number of negative effects on the sufferer. According to the article, individuals suffering from GID suffer emotional problems that stem from gender distress. In some individuals, engaging in activities that reduce gender distress may occupy the most of their time. For example, the article states that males with gender distress may resort to hormone treatments, castrations, or penectomy in order to address the problem (Roman, 2011). The author also argues that the disorder may manifest in a number of ways, which include being born with ambiguous genitalia, having secondary sex characteristics of the opposite gender, and surgery aimed towards changing the individuals' sex. The disorder leads to a number of issues such as social isolation through either personal choice or exclusion by members of society (for example teasing by peers). This in turn, leads to low self-esteem, as well as, relationship suffering. Based on the argument presented in the article, children, adolescents, and adults with GID may also suffer from anxiety, personality disorders, and depression. Additionally, suicide attempts are also common as well as substance abuse in order to deal with the social problems brought about by the disorder (Roman, 2011).
The author also points out the causes and treatment of the disorder in order to support the argument that GID is a disorder. The article argues that there is no sure cause of the disorder. However, the main suspected causes for the disorder are hormonal influence in the womb, environmental factors (such as upbringing) and genetics (Roman, 2011). Lastly, the article argues that there are a number of the treatment options available. These treatment options include individual and family counselling for children and individual or couples counseling for adults. Sex reassignment surgery, as well as hormonal therapy, is also recommended in the article as a viable treatment for the disorder.
In the article titled Sex Reassignment Surgery Is a Medical Necessity the author presents the argument that sex reassignment surgery is essential and necessary for transgender individuals. According to the article, surgery is imperative for any individual diagnosed with GID since it will lead to an increase in the individual's quality of life as well as improving the individual's self-image. According to the article, the list of essential sex reassignment surgeries includes hysterectomy, which involves surgically removing female reproductive parts. Secondly, the article also argues that bilateral mastectomy and chest augmentation based on the patient's needs. Lastly, the article also includes genital reconstruction based on the patient's gender change needs as an essential surgery for individuals with GID. The article explains that these surgical procedures are not elective nor cosmetic but are a necessity for individuals with GID (World Professional Association for Transgender Health, Inc, 2008).
The author supports his argument by presenting data and information from the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH). In its publications, the association argues for the surgical management of the identity disorder. The association also considers it unethical to deny an individual suffering from GID any form of sex reassignment surgery regardless of their HIV or Hepatitis status (World Professional Association for Transgender Health, Inc, 2008).
The article, opposes the original articles argument that the most effective treatment for GID is individual and family counselling for children and individual or couples counseling for adults. The author of the original article writes, A better outcome is associated with the early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder (Roman, 2011). However, in the opposing article the author writes, Sex reassignment plays an undisputed role in contributing toward favorable outcomes (World Professional Association for Transgender Health, Inc, 2008). This directly opposes the view that therapy and counselling are important treatment options aimed at addressing GID
In the last article titled Transgender People Should Not Be Labeled with Mental Disorders the author examines the effects of the psychological classification of Gender Identity Disorder (GID). According to the article, the psychological classification of GID is negative since it infringes on the rights of transgender individuals (Winters, 2011). The main reason for this observation is the fact that the classification used reinforces negative stereotypes that contribute directly towards the continued social isolation experienced by transgender individuals in society. Furthermore, classification and the DSM IV do not support the importance of sex reassignment surgery that is critical towards the treatment of the disorder. The article argues that the classification of normal sex behaviors and characteristics of a specific gender such as dressing and mannerism is illogical. The author argues that is not logical how some of the behaviors can be considered exclusive to one gender and not the other. Therefore, classification in turn helps to affirm traditional gender roles and leads to increased false stereotypes (Winters, 2011).
The article argues that the name itself (Gender Identity Disorder) contributes negatively towards suffers since it suggests immature development. This in turn has led to the creation of barriers towards the access of medical services needed by individuals suffering from gender dysphoria. This is mainly because the diagnosis criterion mainly examines distress resulting from social prejudice (Winters, 2011).
The article directly opposes the first article since the author argues that the classification of normal sex behaviors and characteristics of a specific gender such as dressing and mannerism is illogical (Winters, 2011). The author argues that is not logical how some of the behaviors can be considered exclusive to one gender and not the other. Therefore, classification in turn helps to affirm traditional gender roles and leads to increased false stereotypes. In the first article, the author argues that individuals with GID may dress and portray mannerisms belonging to the opposite gender (Roman, 2011). This is not a view supported in the last article.
"Transgender People Suffer from Gender Identity Disorders." Transgender People. Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Rpt. from "Gender Identity Disorder." Psychology Today (24 Oct. 2005). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
Winters, Kelley. "Transgender People Should Not Be Labeled with Mental Disorders." Transgender People. Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Rpt. from "Issues of GID Diagnosis for Transsexual Women and Men." GID Reform Advocates White Paper, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
World Professional Association for Transgender Health, Inc. "Sex Reassignment Surgery Is a Medical Necessity." Transgender People. Ed. Roman Espejo. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Rpt. from "WPATH Clarification on Medical Necessity of Treatment, Sex Reassignment, and Insurance Coverage in the U.S.A." 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.
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