Free Report Example on Tourism Management

Paper Type:  Report
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1689 Words
Date:  2023-11-25


Tourism management is defined as the oversight of all the undertakings, which are tourism-related and closely associated with the hospitalism industries (Inkson and Minnaert, 2018). It is a multidisciplinary field that prepares interested people for the management positions in the tourism, accommodation, and food industries. The sector might also comprise associations, public authorities, and enterprises that market tourism services to potential customers. Tourism is an essential player in the economies of many countries in the world. It boosts the revenue of the economy in addition to the creation of jobs, development of infrastructure, and cultivates the culture of cultural exchange between citizens and foreigners. The number of jobs created through a vibrant tourism sector is significant and may also include positions in the communication, agriculture, education, and health sectors. The reason tourists travel is to experience the hosting community's culture, gastronomy, and traditions. Their stay in those places is highly profitable to the locals as their shopping centers, restaurants, and stores benefit primarily from these tourists' purchases. The returns are even higher when the tourists are foreigners. Governments rely on tourism to use much of their budgets and revenues to invest in their infrastructure. The growth in infrastructure acts as more push for tourists to visit as it guarantees safety and advanced facilities guarantee an enjoyable stay in the country or attraction sites. Those are among the many benefits of tourism in the country. However, the players or the factors that influence the smooth flow of tourism in a state or an attraction site. These factors include the destination image, loyalty, perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intention. This literature review will define the above parameters and help establish the interrelationship between them and their significance in the general tourism sector.

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Destination Image

A number of researchers tried to define destination images related to tourism studies, with each forming their definitions. However, no accepted universal definition for the same. There are one general description states that it is the illustration of all the information. Impressions are shaped by each attribute's assessments, including both perception and emotional thoughts (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999). Researchers have demonstrated that image is a significant factor in the selection of destinations by tourists. Several other studies explain the relationships between destination image and preference to a site by tourists. Various studies investigated the effect of familiarity on destination image (Kanwel et al., 2019). However, minimal research has been advanced on how destination image is formed.

Baloglu & McCleary (1999), in their article, explained the formation of the destination image in the case where the consumer has visited the destination in the past. Their study focussed on its dynamic nature by investigating the influences on its appearance and structure without actual visitation. They indicated that the initial image formation before the trip is the most essential in tourists' destination selection process. The studies of destination image have been described as merely being theoretical with a lack of conceptual framework, a notion which is explained by Gallarza et al. (2002). He explained about the conceptual framework of destination image. Baloglu & McCleary conducted research where they formed a model of a destination image to provide the framework for studying the forces guiding its formation.


Several scholars including (Kanwel et al., Chai and Tsai have drawn comparisons between the destination image and the level of satisfaction of consumers. Most previously done research including Ramseook-Munhurrun et al., (2015) and Rajesh (2013) concentrated on consumers' satisfaction at the global level until the recent past when scholars decided to focus on the attribute level of satisfaction. Satisfaction studies on tourism have indicated that consumers' satisfaction with certain aspects of the destination image is bound to influence the overall satisfaction with the destination (Rajesh, 2013). However, it is essential to differentiate the overall satisfaction from the attribute satisfaction of a consumer.

According to Prayag (2009), performance measurements would be more suitable in determining future behavior rather than disconfirmation or expectation. He also opines that visitor satisfaction is a holistic impression after the experience of a holiday. Baloglu et al. (2004) conducted a study to evaluate the impact of destination image on satisfaction. The findings indicated that pleasure was an intervening variable between the destination performance for destinations (Rajesh, 2013). However, like all other studies, this study has its limitations, but it is significant to acknowledge that destination image also plays a role in satisfaction.


It has been established that destination image has a significant impact on visitors' satisfaction. However, it is essential to note that the two are not near related but need a mediator to establish the relationship (Rajesh, 2013). The initial perception plays a significant role, cultivated by the destination image that the visitor is shown before visiting the place. The experience consequently will be the final determinant as far as customer satisfaction is concerned. The same is replicated in visitor loyalty. Ramseook-Munhurrun et al. (2015) conducted a study to investigate the relationship between the destination image and the perceived value and to evaluate other factors likely to influence tourist satisfaction, which in the long run affects tourists' loyalty. Tourist destinations are required to better their images to increase tourist traffic, income, and employment from the same and revenue generated by the government. Therefore, the destination image is an essential player in tourists' final evaluation of their future behavior, which can easily be defined in terms of loyalty (Ramseook-Munhurrun et al., 2015).

Most marketing strategies aim to create an image or leave a lasting impression of visitors' positivity within the target audience. Visitor loyalty is a critical factor in the consumer marketing mentality and informs its sustainability and viability plans (Ramseook-Munhurrun et al. 2015). Studies conducted by scholar opined of models to come up with an explanation in the relationship between destination image and customer loyalty. It was found that the destination image positively impacted a visitor's loyalty. Ramseook-Munhurrun et al. (2015) established that destination image indirectly affects loyalty through perceived value and visitor satisfaction used as moderating variables.

Perceived Value

Destination images have a significant impact on the perceived value of a destination. The destination image is the composition of the ideas held by an individual or a group of people the destination to be under investigation (Meng et al. 2011). Perceived value is defined as the consumer's overall assessment of a product's utility based on the perceptions of what is accepted and what is given. Value is expressed in four different ways, firstly as low price, as a quality that a consumer receives for the price paid, as whatever one wants in a product, and lastly, as what the consumer gets for what they give. The perceived value of a vacation may vary depending on the marketing strategies of the tourism company. During the consumption process, consumers evaluate the services' weight and their products based on their expectations (Kanwel et al., 2019).

Tourists may have difficulties distinguishing their expectations and perceived value as the above depends on various factors (Ozturk & Qu, 2008). Moreover, exceeding the customers' expectations becomes an essential factor in beating in marketing and providing visitors services. A study conducted by Ozturk & Qu (2008) indicated that destination image impacted the perceived value of a service. They experimented with value compared with accommodation, food, beverage, hospitality, and customer care, among other variables. Their study pointed out that accommodation and food or beverage strongly impacted tourists' perceived value, among other things. Therefore, proves the truth of the above hypothesis.

Destination Image

Tourist consumption behavior informs tourist behavior, which can be subdivided into three stages: pre, during, and post-visitation. Behavioral intention describes the visitor's judgment about the likeliness to go back to the same destination or the willingness to recommend the destination to others (Rajesh, 2013). Tourist behaviors include the choice of the destination to visit, subsequent evaluations, and future behavioral intention. The following assessments have travel experience or perceived quality of the trip during the stay, among many things. Future behavioral intentions include the willingness to revisit a destination and recommend others' destination. The destination image has a significant influence in what a visitor chooses as their destination (Prayag, 2009). In his article, Prayag acknowledged the importance of destination image and how it shapes a consumer’s view in the case of islands in Mauritius.

Chen and Tsai conducted a study to investigate the impact of destination image on behavioral intentions. In their study, they obtained the following results. Their study compared destination image and behavioral intention over several evaluative factors, including perceived quality, trip quality, and satisfaction. The relationship was tested from data obtained from a questionnaire survey. They agreed that the destination image had the most critical impact on tourist behavioral intentions. The influence is both directly and indirectly. It was found that the destination image also influenced the conditions after-decision-making behavior of tourists (Rajesh, 2013). Hence, measures should be taken to improve a destination's appearance to facilitate a destination's revisitation by loyal visitors.


Loyal customers will re-buy a brand or a service, consider it only whenever they have needs for such a product or service, and will not attempt to seek any other brand-related information. It is also defined as the customers' plans or the actual behavior of repeatedly buying certain services or products. A similar definition emphasizes two different factions of loyalty: attitudinal and behavioral concepts (Dolnicar et al. 2015). From that perspective, loyalty can thus be defined as a deeply held assurance to re-purchase or patronize a preferred service or product consistently, leading to the same brand or the same service purchasing the circumstantial influences and marketing having the potential of making one change their mind notwithstanding. Another closely related word is behavioral terms, which are defined as the repeat purchasing frequency or relative volume of same-brand purchasing.


There is the concept of ultimate loyalty, which is defining loyalty in higher dimensions. One scholar described ultimate loyalty as those customers who fervently yearn to re-purchase a product or a service and will think of no other option and will pursue the will against all obstacles and costs. It is also defined as the consumers’ aim to preserve a relationship with a service provider and product seller and make their next purchase from the said provider (Arachchi et al., 2015).

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