Free Essay Example on 14 Principles of Management

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1653 Words
Date:  2023-11-02


The administrative theory was designed to attempt to design an entire organization through the concept of departmentalization. The concept involves developing a structure that provides a clear illustration of labor division, the structure, and power is given on each level of the structure. Through the theory, the fourteen principles of management were developed. The first principle involving division of work was focused on dividing work into some parts that could be done by more than one employee to increase efficiency and speed. The second is the authority, which gives the managers the power to give orders to the subordinates. The theory also involves discipline that requires all employees to obey and respect the organization's rules. Unity of command illustrates that each employee is supposed to get orders from a single superior. A group in the organization is controlled by a single manager with a single plan. The theory also expects an organization's management to be driven by its goals since it is the most important organization.

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The Human Relations Theory

The human relations theory illustrates the idea of organizations treating individuals as people and not machines. This idea is based on the fact that people have individual needs compared to machines that do not have such needs. The theory also illustrates that individuals want to get involved in the organization's growth and development, both emotionally and through their work. According to Busse & Warner (2017), Elton Mayo advocated for employees to be treated as human beings and get the motivation they require to lead the organization to meet its goals and objectives (Busse & Warner, 2017). Motivation in organizations is essential in ensuring that employees have the stimulation to work better and provide their best in achieving the goals that the organization has set. In his past research, Mayo studied different human resources sections, including; "multitasking, communication, conflict resolution, organization, and negotiation" (Busse & Warner, 2017). The researcher found out that the organization is a vital relation skill required within work areas. The result is due to the importance of keeping the operation within the organization flowing as it is supposed to be flowing. It is considered essential when keeping records so that the management can understand the parts in the organization that require specific changes and those that need a boost in their working areas to improve productivity.

Systems Theory

Systems theory was introduced in businesses with his first approach on systems being on how individuals interact with their environment (Hofkirchner, 2019). Through his research, he made discoveries against reductionism, which focused on the simple fundamentals of the complex unit. Thus, the system theory was focusing on acknowledging complex systems within any cohesive framework in society and organizations. The theory illustrated that specific results are acquired through each unit in the complex group contributing to meeting the targets. In an organization, each employee is considered an essential part of the organization and its achievements.

The system theory is divided into three domains that include technology, science, and philosophy. This means that the theory can be involved in numerous applications other than organizations only. This theory's primary application is in objective-oriented processes that require different elements to be involved in the meeting of the goals and objectives (Hofkirchner, 2019). In this theory, success is not considered from the elements individually but from the whole complex organization of these elements. The interrelationship of the elements and members of an organization determines the ability to meet the targets. It is considered to follow an ordered nature when making the interactions to ensure the expected results are met efficiently. The system theory can be investigated in different applications since it can be applied in different organizations that require interactions to achieve the expected results.

Theorists’ Current Researches

The Administrative theory has undergone numerous researches and scrutiny to improve the concept involved in the theory. The initial study done by Fayol was on the importance of management in an organization and how it would improve the operations and achievements of the organizations. Current studies have been focused on the improvement of Fayol's management theory. The scalar chain has been studied in numerous studies to understand how the chain of command is included in an organization and how it helps achieve the goals the organization has set up. The chain involves supervisors that are included in each level of command within the organization. Fayol's definition of the scalar chain illustrates that supervisors are included in each level of the organization, starting from the highest to the lowest (Edwards, 2018). The chain also expects communication to be included within the organization through the supervisors, leading to better contact with employees. In recent researches, it has been considered a common sense for organizations to apply the administrative theory. This is because, through theory, organizations can have a well-formed framework of the organization.

Organizations in the current world have a mandatory structure that allows the organization to have a transparent organization. The organization's hierarchy is managed through the theory and allows orders to flow from each level to the other as required. The structure acquired through the administrative theory allows organizations to have well-defined levels of the hierarchy. This also helps in work division where each hierarchical level has departments that are provided with specific duties. Extensive duties are done faster and successfully since the structure allows the division of the work among the different departments. The success level is increased through this structure made through the theory since the organization’s objectives are divided through the structure. There is also a sense of planning and formality through the organization structure. Organizations can have specific individuals working at specific levels of the organization, making it easy to have managers supervise the work done at each level of the hierarchy.

The Human Relations Theory undergo multiple studies and research focused on improving the understanding of the founder Mayo's initial idea. The study has been connected with an improvement of the human and social influences on the business industry. Studies have found that organizations should focus mainly on meeting the employees' satisfaction first before other objectives to ensure they are motivated, and their productivity improved. Employees produce the highest quality results when they believe that the organization has a consideration of their needs. Management has a goal of meeting the needs of the employees to ensure that production will be improved. Current research has been done on the relationship between employee motivation and productivity (Oyerinde, 2017). The researchers have found that motivation, through the human relations theory, is essential in the organization and is met through employee satisfaction.

The human relations theory is in place in the current world organizations since employees’ satisfaction has been included in the goals of the organizations. Organizations achieve this through incentives and employee retention features. These methods involve offering employees prices when they meet certain goals. Organizations also accept and consider the employees’ grievances and requests to ensure they are satisfied. The human resource management department in the organization is the current implementers of the theory. This is due to the department having the role and responsibility of working closely with employees. This involves hiring them, listening to their grievances, and providing motivation to the employees. The theory is used to improve the organization's ability to meet its goals and objectives faster since when employees are motivated, there is a high chance of achieving the goals faster and efficiently. Therefore, employee satisfaction is their primary concern, thus making the theory connect to the human resource management department.

The Systems Theory of management researches has been underway for a long time after its introduction by Mayo. The theory has helped the organization identify its organization as a system and not as parts that form it. It has been discovered that there can be open and closed organization systems that are different from each other. The differences involve the effects of the environment on an organization where open is affected while the closed ones are not affected by the environment. Most theories have concluded that organizations to being open systems since the environment affects the organization. These organizations have inputs, outputs, and feedback loops that allow them to repeat their operations to make more productions and meet goals (Hislop et al., 2018).

The system theory has been employed in current organizations where they have different inputs such as employees, raw materials, and machines. These are used to produce outputs, which include yields that are sold in the market, and the feedback loop allows the organization to repeat the production and improve sales, thus meeting the goals. Organizations in the current world have to increase inputs to make sure output is increased as well. Technology can be used to achieve this since it can be categorized as an input. Through inputs and feedback loops, the output can be improved at a high rate since there are enough inputs that provide better production ability to the organizations. Organizations also consider themselves as an open system and ensure they keep an eye on the environmental factors that may affect production to improve their achievements.


Finally, all theories also include centralization that focuses on the hierarchy of the organization when making transformations in the organization. The labor in the organization should be paid at a considerable and reasonable salary for all employees and management within the organization. According to Fayol, the chain of authority in an organization follows the hierarchy of the departments in the organization (Hatchuel & Segrestin, 2019). The workforce and items used in achieving the organization's goals should be at the places they are expected to be at the time of operation. It includes recommendations to organizations to combine kindness and justice in its operation while providing job safety and career improvement opportunities. Through the administrative theory, organizations allow the initiatives of the employees to improve the operations, thus ensuring the growth of both the organization and the creativity of the employees.

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