HPT is the acronym that stands for human performance technology. Human refer to the groups and individuals that make up the organizations. Performance, on the other hand, refers to the actions as well as measurable outcomes. Technology is a systemic and systematic approach to solving challenges.
The HPT model helps to compare the current and the desired levels of organizational performance and individual to discover the performance gap. A cause evaluation is then carried out to determine the effect on work atmosphere and the people (skills, individual capacity, and motives) are having on performance (Dessinger, Moseley & Van Tiem, 2012). After the performance causes and gap have been identified, there is creation and widening of correct interventions. These may comprise training and development, employees selection and placement, reward and compensation systems, new equipment and tools and assessment and feedback structures (Dessinger, et al, 2012). The involvements are then executed and the change procedure dealt with.
Evaluation is carried out after every stage of the process. Originally, formative assessment evaluates the intervention and change, intervention design and selection, cause analysis and performance examination. The assessment concentrates on the instant reaction of the staffs and their capability and readiness to do the required behaviors. The last examinations are focused on improvement of business results like market share, profitability, customer retention, sales, productivity and quality and are determining ROI for the intervention (Wilmoth, Prigmore & Bray, 2010).
HPT model uses broad series of intercessions that are drawn from numerous disciplines comprising, human resource management, organizational development, and instructional system design. Based on that, HPT emphasizes rigorous examination of current and preferred levels of performance and offers broad interventions that enhance performance (Wilmoth, Prigmore & Bray, 2010).
Principles of Human Performance Technology
HPT concentrates on output. Concentrating on outputs permits interrogation, confirming as well as reconfirming that persons share similar goals and vision, job process that support quality, efficiency and productivity and that individuals have skills, knowledge, and motivation they need. Where there exists performance gap or opportunity, a difference between current as well as desired performance level, the results or the outcomes of intervention will be measured to discover if the performance has improved. At some point, it is essential to challenge the presumed answer to the anticipated event or problem and concentrate on the achievement or business need that is the customers true priority (Wilmoth, Prigmore & Bray, 2010). HPT considers a systems view. Considering systems view is significant since the companies are complicated systems that influence individuals performance within them. It is essential to differentiate between process models from a systems approach. The process consists of inputs as well as outputs with feedback chain. A system indicates an integrated multifaceted of operationally related elements. The efficiency of every unit relies on how it fits in the entire process and efficiency of the entire process relies on was every unit operates.
HPT adds value. This is an evaluation that the customer will be requested to make. Customers must be provided with a process that assists them to fully comprehend the complications of their decisions, set accurate measures, identify tradeoffs, barriers and take control. Whereas HPT requires a concentration on immediate aims, like cost reduction, customer retention and improve quality, its successes are calculated in the enhancement of the preferred business results like market share, profitability, and sales (Wilmoth, Prigmore & Bray, 2010). Association of personal performance to transitional and business results is crucial to HPT model.
HPT creates partnerships. Performance enhancement experts work as a partnership with other specialists and clients. A joint effort entails relevant stakeholders in the process of decision making and includes working with experts in the area of specialization. Working jointly involves allotment of decisions concerning goals, next phase to take in the procedure and execution strategies as well as shared tasks. Partnerships are formed after carefully listening to the colleagues and clients, respecting trusting each others expertise and knowledge.
Be organized in the evaluation of the opportunity or the need. The evaluation takes place in the commencement of the project, opportunity or needs analysis deals with evaluating the present circumstance at any levels to identify internal and external pressures influencing it. This process will help to determine the performance gaps or shortages that are to be corrected. The productivity is a phrase defining the present situation, the anticipated future condition as well as the justification or business case for non-action or action (Dessinger, et al, 2012).
ADDIE is an ellipsis that denotes analysis, design, development, implementation or execution, as well as examination or evaluation. In the phase of analysis, the company analyzes the circumstances by determining the problem, aims as well as goals. These include the company needs, accessible information, as well as any other applicable characteristics (ADDIE Model, 2010).
In the design phase, goals of the company are defined (ADDIE Model, 2010). Details are as well given about evaluation tools, content, subject matter analysis, during the design step. Details are vital when making the design of the performance.
In the stage of development, the company takes the design phase content and begins to create an instructional design (Instructional Design, 2010). The company should ensure that the performance needs are going to be met (Malachowski, 2002).
The 4th step in the ADDIE model is implementation or execution. This is where the need is put into the act (Malachowski, 2002). The last stage is an estimation. Two evaluations can be employed, formative and summative (Instructional Design, 2010). Formative assessments evaluate the improvement of the model. Summative evaluations on other hand tests provide opportunities for feedback from the users (Instructional Design, 2010).
Gagnes model is 9 actions of instruction. Gagne considers that these 9 actions need to happen in order for the performance to be effective (Gagne, 2010). The first action is gain attention. This is imperative since the staffs will not understand what they need to if they are not focused. Informing staffs objectives is the second action. The staffs need be aware of the objectives of the company and needs. The next action is to stimulate recall of previous information. This entails associating what they learnt in the past and current (Kruse, 2010). Among others.
The three models: ADDIE, Gagne nine events and HPT are designed to enhance performance in the company by determining performance gaps in the company. The ADDIE model and HPT model begin with determining objectives of the company before planning. Gagnes actions are geared toward conducting the performance. Gagne likewise focused on the aims at the beginning of the performance analysis to help the staffs know what goals are expected. HPT recommends being organized in the evaluation of the workplace and work to discover the factors that regulate performance. Cause examination helps to determine the reasons for performance gap or anticipations exist. Some root causes are very clear like new recruits lack the needed skills to do the anticipated task. This step in the systematic procedure will help to identify what need to be addressed to enhance performance. The production statement of the reason performance is not occurring or will not occur without intercession. Job examination encompasses determination of the vital tasks that staffs should do and abilities, skills and knowledge to perform them.
ADDIE Model. (2010, June). Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Learning Theories Knowledgebase: http://www.learning-theories.com/addie-model.html
Berger, C., & Kam, R. (1996, October 6). Definitions of Instruction Design: Adapted from "Training and Instructional Design". Retrieved (March 16, 2017), from http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/define.htmlDessinger, J. C., Moseley, J. L., & Van Tiem, D. M. (2012). Performance improvement/HPT model: Guiding the process. Performance Improvement, 51(3), 10-17.
Kruse, K. (2010, June). Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction. Retrieved (March 16, 2017) from E-Learning Guru: http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm
Robert Gagne's Nine Steps of Instruction. (2010, June 7). Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Big Dog and Little Dog's Performance Juxtaposition: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/nine_step_id.htmlWilmoth, F. S., Prigmore, C., & Bray, M. (2010). HPT models: An overview of the major models in the field. Handbook of improving performance in the workplace, volume two: Selecting and implementing performance interventions, 5-26.
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