Hayashi, Y., Okamoto, Y., Takagaki, K., Okada, G., Toki, S., Inoue, T., Tanabe, H., Kobayakawa, M., & Yamawaki, S. (2015). Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 244. doi: 10.1186/s12888-015-0636-1
The article by Hayashi et al. (2015) sought to investigate the direct as well as the indirect influences of childhood abuse towards the depression symptoms among the patients that have a major depressive disorder. It has been established that the onset, progression, as well as the prognosis of the major depressive disorder, is impacted by various factors that include the environment, personality, and even genes. Besides, the childhood abuse is noted to have a significant impact on the long-term negative effects towards the mental as well as the physical conditions regarding the risk for psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder when they grow up. In this regard, the researchers for this study sought to examine how childhood abuse, personality, as well as stress and other life events influence the symptoms of depression among depressed people. According to the study, the researchers hypothesized that childhood abuse impact on an individual's personality which can facilitate the development of the depression symptoms. Additionally, the researchers hypothesized that different life events, especially in childhood, can lead to an onset of depression symptoms. Therefore, they aimed at investigating the correlation of various events with the development of the psychological disorder.
The researchers used various measures and metrics to establish the correlation between the different childhood abuse and life events that are stressful and how they lead to the onset of the live events in the adulthood regarding psychological disorders. Studies have been conducted to establish whether there is any correlation between these factors. In this regard, the researchers noted that the path coefficient was proposed from the childhood abuse and the adulthood events towards the development of depression symptoms. It has, therefore, been acknowledged that childhood abuse impacts on the personality and life events including the behaviors, sensitivity to stressors, and character tendencies. The researchers collected data from various participants with the Hiroshima University committee approving the study to be conducted. Therefore, the researchers contacted all the authorities to ensure that all permissions were granted. This is important as it ensures that the procedure for research is evaluated and hence the credibility and reliability is established. In this regard, the study was conducted ethically. From the analysis, it can be established that the participants were informed and took part freely without compromising their willingness. The researchers used a qualitative research design which was effective in analyzing the correlation of the psychological factors hence making the study a success.
Pos, K., Boyette, L., Meijer, C., Koeter, M., Krabbendam, L., & Haan, L. (2016). The effects of childhood trauma and Five-Factor Model personality traits on exposure to adult live events in patients with psychotic disorders. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 21(6), 462-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2016.1236014
The study by Pos, Boyette, Meijer, Koeter, Krabbendam, and Haan (2016) sought to evaluate the effect of the childhood trauma and the five-factor model of personality traits regarding the exposure on the life events in the patients that have the psychotic disorders. According to the article, the exposure to recent life events has an association with the increased risks of experiencing a first psychotic episode. Besides, the researchers pointed out that the patients who have psychotic disorders are likely to be associated with a psychotic relapse. The researchers quoted different pieces of research that have established a relationship between the psychotic disorders and the life events that the individual has gone through. In this regard, the researchers suggested that the illness characteristics in individuals may predispose regarding the experiences of life events among the patients' psychotic disorders. Additionally, the researchers suggested that childhood trauma depicts a higher prevalence of the negative events in life among the general population. Therefore, Pos et al. (2016) specifically sought to investigate whether the childhood trauma, as well as the FFM personality traits, predispose towards the experiencing of the adult live events among the patients who have psychotic disorders.
From the study, it can be established that the researchers sought to evaluate the factors of FFM personality traits as well as childhood trauma and how it influences an individual's life. The researchers focused on the traits of neuroticism and openness to the experiences. According to the researchers, it was suggested that there is a positive correlation between childhood trauma and negative effects of live events. Also, the researchers noted that the childhood trauma impacts on the FFM traits positively. To achieve this, the researchers used a Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis research project. In this regard, the study undertook a longitudinal approach which is imperative in establishing reliable findings among the subjects. The various measures of life events, personality traits, and trauma were evaluated using different measures and scales. This depicts the reliability in the findings. Therefore, the study can be considered to have been conducted in an ethical manner as all the procedures were followed to ensure that the subjects were not harmed. It should be pointed out that the safety of subjects whether humans or animals is paramount. Therefore, this study followed the required ethical principles hence its credibility. The researchers used an ethnography longitudinal approach which was effective in providing the descriptions of the findings, hence its reliability.
Paulhus, D., Trapnell, P., & Chen, D. (1999). Birth order on personality and achievement within families. American Psychological Society, 10(6), 482-488. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00193
The issue of birth order effects has been a major issue of discussion in the scholarly world since the 1980s. The purpose of the article by Paulhus, Trapnell, and Chen (1999) was to investigate the birth order effects on personality as well as the influence on the achievement of families. According to the researchers, the notion regarding birth order has significantly been studied since the findings by researchers Ernst and Angst in 1983. The researchers sought to investigate the correlation with the personality traits and the birth order. Therefore, Paulhus, Trapnell, and Chen (1999) aimed at expanding this research to establish whether the findings and suggestions that have already been made by different researchers are indeed true and reliable. The researchers hypothesized that birth order impacts on the individual personalities as well as the achievements of the families. It has been suggested that the first-borns have a niche in which they seek to impress the parents in the traditional setups regarding their behavior and the school responsibilities among others. Therefore, it was suggested that the birth order would impact on their personality traits.
To investigate their hypothesis, the researchers collected family set data through the use of a questionnaire. It should be noted that the use of a questionnaire is imperative in collecting qualitative data as the responses can be evaluated in relation to the emotional wellness and facial expressions among other non-verbal cues which suggest the validity of the findings. Undergraduates from California University were used as well as the ones from British Columbia University hence evaluating an alternative hypothesis to ensure that a comparative case could be established regarding the personality traits. Through the use of this method, it was also possible to collect quantitative data that could be analyzed statistically to give the significance tests. Some of the factors that were established from the study included high and low salience conditions. This enabled to investigate the first-borns in class and their behavioral responses. From the analysis, it is evident that birth order has a role in the personality traits. Therefore, the study agreed with most of the other pieces of literature which have suggested a correlation between the birth order and how children behave. The study provided credible findings considering that they followed all the ethical principles including informed consent to collect data from the participants.
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