Quality can be defined as an active state linked to the products, services, people, processes, and contexts that are aligned or surpass the current expectations (Olson, 2018). TQM is a strategy that many businesses are adopting in order to maximize their competitive edge over their rivals (Olson, 2018). A good example of a company, where this strategy has worked out is Apple Inc. The article has assessed Dr. Deming's five steps and fourteen points of TQM that has made Apple reinforce its success (Olson, 2018).
According to Apple's mission statement on Apple designs Macs, it is evident that the company strives to provide the best personal computers to its clients globally. Dr. Deming initiated five steps to link the organization's processes with the client's need (Olson, 2018). These five steps include; conducting consumer research, and applying it in planning the product. The second step is to manufacture the product; Apple has produced its first products and ensured they retain quality (Olson, 2018). Apple's infinite loop testing laboratories ensure the company's products are rigorously tested before being released and sold in the market. The fourth facet is apple's generic marketing strategy that places emphasis on delivering the best quality products to the clients according to the technological trends (Olson, 2018). The final element is seen by Apple's reinvestment in innovation and technology to ensure they continue to grow their product lines, and meet the needs of their clients (Olson, 2018).
An Overview of Game Testing Techniques
Software validating can be termed as the process of testing, and verifying software products before releasing them to the final consumer (Redavid & Farid, 2011). Software testing serves as one of the most fundamental stages during the game development process. The simple testing methods applied for procedural code are needed to extend objects oriented coding methods, such as polymorphism, binding, and other object-oriented elements (Redavid & Farid, 2011).
The analysis will focus on three modes of testing; code-based testing permits the game developers to test significant parts of the software that are rarely tested and makes sure the most important function point has been validated (Redavid & Farid, 2011). Specification-based validation is used to generate models of a system, to test the system, and to guarantee the high accuracy of the paper. Object-oriented testing, developers focus more on merging, and system testing rather than unit validation (Redavid & Farid, 2011). Another important element is performance validating as it normally the concern of clients to ensure the gaming software they will be using functions based on their expectations (Redavid & Farid, 2011).
Experimental Design in Game Testing
The gaming sector has been on an upward trajectory over the last few decades. Firms in this industry are currently injecting enormous amounts of funds to release their games based on trends in technology (Sagi, 2016). A portion of this money has been channeled to the validation of the functionality of these games before they are released. In a game, a bug is purported to happen when the game does not behave according to its designated design (Sagi, 2016). The process of writing validation cases to test games needs standardization (Sagi, 2016).
Combinatorial validation is an example of an experimental design that is used to generate test cases and is mainly used for commercial software testing. In manual validation of a video game, the tester is not aware of the game's source code (Sagi, 2016). This category of testing is known as black-box testing (Sagi, 2016). The tester integrates the tets cases and observes its effect on the game. If a test case results in a bug, the one testing should report the bug so that the developers can fix it before releasing the game in the market (Sagi, 2016).
Quality Management: Significant Aspects of the Food Industry
Undoubtedly, with the growth of globalization, the food industry has become more competitive, since it has opened an avenue for new rival companies (Paiva, 2013). However, it does not primarily mean risk for the survival of local firms, but a challenge they must put into focus. To be able to do that there is a need for them to ensure their clients are served with standard meals that have been validated (Paiva, 2013).
From a broad perspective, there is a need for companies in the food industry to maintain the utmost quality in terms of the health standards of the meals they offer to their customers. They need to comply with health safety standards, good manufacturing practices, and hazard analysis and critical control points to ensure humans are not put at risk of getting poisoned (Paiva, 2013). The quality control department should partner with different labs to ensure their food samples conform to the physical, chemical, and sensory properties emphasized by HACCP (Paiva, 2013).
Total Quality Management in the Airline Industry
Since the inception of TQM, it has been to play a significant role in many firms that want to improve the performance they render to clients (Nagarajan, 2018). Therefore, the internal, and external customer's needs can be integrated into the organization in the name of products and quality services. In the aviation industry, TQM is pivotal in ensuring safe flight management and also in hastening the realization of organizational goals and targets (Nagarajan, 2018).
When planning, and implementing a TQM strategy, there is a need to focus on how it will help the company realize its objectives. Implementation of TQM strategy in the airline industry will increase the productivity of the workers who will be determined to meet the needs of the clients (Nagarajan, 2018). In order to execute TQM, the focus of the airline industry should focus on four essential steps; lowering costs significantly, covering business growth through connections, and cooperation, increasing returns on flights by investing in reservations made through computers, and concentrate on fulfilling the needs of the clients (Nagarajan, 2018).
Information System Strategy for TQM in the Aviation Industry
Aviation has developed significantly over the past few years because of the good quality of service that companies are rendering to their clients (Qasim & Zafar, 2016).
TQM principles are useful for availing the processes of the firm under the statical control, and a sustainable infrastructure on the implementation of this strategy in the industry. TQM tool is seen as a system that is capable of accomplishing notable gains in the field of business performance (Qasim & Zafar, 2016).
AVPro software is a good example of a tool that many firms use to enhance quality in the aviation industry (Qasim & Zafar, 2016).
Information system strategy is a facet of TQM that offers greater reliability, and scalability to enhancing the quality of organizational product and service (Qasim & Zafar, 2016).
It also provides greater structure to total management systems of quality structure that guarantees proper aviation maintenance of key components within the airline (Qasim & Zafar, 2016).
Quality Assurance and GMP for Pharmaceutical Products
Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Good Manufacturing Practices are the basic consideration for the processing, distribution, and marketing of pharmaceutical drugs (Sarker, 2006). The regulatory authorities have concluded that across the world, pharmaceutical products should fulfill the following characteristics; the idenitity-the product should be properly labeled, packed and stored in the right conditions. Strength, the safety of the drug, and the effectiveness in terms of curing a patient (Sarker, 2006).
Medical staff should be trained on a number of QC activities to enforce in their respective health facilities; They should know how to assess the bulk products for further processing, validation of finished products for either approval or denial, and also sampling adequately for validation purposes (Sarker, 2006). Above all health, officers should implement GMP to assess the mode of operation within the health facility. GMP is defined as pharmaceutical regulations, directives, and guidance that a manufacturer must abide by when making medicinal drugs (Sarker, 2006).
Quality Management System in the Drug Industry
Quality management in pharmaceutical firms is an important factor since drugs are directly ingested to the consumer's body system, therefore identity, purity, safety, and eventually the quality of products are strong rudiments (Pandey & Anju, 2018). Preserving quality in the product is an intricate process, and requires to be taken into account based on GMP, GLP, and many others (Pandey & Anju, 2018).
International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) is a concerted initiative comprising both regulators, and researchers who assess and ensure safety, quality and efficacy during the manufacture of products is maintained (Pandey & Anju, 2018). They have a number of roles; to prevent needless duplication of clinical trials on humans. To reduce the use of animal testing without compromising the safety standards, and to enhance the efficacy of global drug development. Another system is the Pharmaceutical Quality Management System (Pandey & Anju, 2018).
It focuses on two main fronts; drug development; such as pilot plant scale-up activities, and analytical method development such as the provision of facilities and equipment to properly store the drugs (Pandey & Anju, 2018).
Nagarajan, S. (2018). Total Quality Management in the Airline Industry. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/153-156TQM.pdf
Olson, E. W. (2018). TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT & APPLE SUCCESS. In Proceedings of the International Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Management. (pp. 1-7). American Society for Engineering Management (ASEM). Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/PanelWorkshopTutorialDetails_ASEM_2018_359_0730023652.pdf
Paiva, C. L. (2013). Quality management: Important aspects for the food industry. Food industry, 191-218. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/food-industry/quality-management-important-aspects-for-the-food-industry
Pandey, P., & Anju, G. (2018). Quality Management System in Drug Industry: A Review. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 2(1). Retrieved from https://biomedres.us/pdfs/BJSTR.MS.ID.000653.pdf
Qasim, S., & Zafar, A. (2016). Information System Strategy for Total Quality Management (TQM) in Aviation Industry. International Journal of Computer Applications, 975, 8887. Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/IJCA-ISStrategyforTQMinAviationIndustry-2016-ijca-908286.pdf
Redavid, C., & Farid, A. (2011). An overview of game testing techniques. Vasteras: sn. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4361/a1882ca8ea296ff6411dbbaa90ca5fbc3ed4.pdf
Sagi, B. R. (2016). Experimental Design in Game Testing. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.rit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=10170&context=theses
Sarker, M. M. R. (2006). Quality Assurance, Quality Control & GMP. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/ThePharmaWorldVol.1No.2July2006pp.30-34.pdf
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