In this chapter, the research will cover the analysis of the organization's stakeholders as well as the agents that will set changes that will help collaborate to collect information on the functioning of the organization. The formulation of the appropriate change and intervention is needed in the diagnosis to provide a planned intervention. In order to achieve the set goal of the research, use the three models that will synthesize a framework for organizational transformation that will improve the change process. The models will involve:
The Cultural Web (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 1992)
The Change Kaleidoscope ( Balogun & Hailey, 2008)
Force Field Model (Lewin, 1951)
The three models will be used to provide a clear framework that will help to give a correct diagnostic or analysis of the change that is supposed to be achieved in the transformational organizational issues that have been facing the British Petroleums IT department. The models are used to curb the challenges that are brought forth by the aspects that are involved in the modern business. The aspects are mostly concentrated in the economic pressures, financial crises, competition and the demand of the customers. The design of the models will not only equip the organization with the right angle to handle the challenges but will also shed light on the way the change should expand the business into making profits.
The models will work as appropriate tools that will be used to measure success. Organizations have got different views and objectives when dealing with the concept of addressing challenges and finding ways to enhance change in a certain dimension. In this perspective, the overview of the environment structure, economic structure, and the technical exposure might need to be viewed and analyzed as they are the pillars that will assert the condition of an organization and give a preview of the changes that need to be established. The models will help the management to be equipped and prepared for an oversight of the potentiality and the conditions of the market conditions and the way that the oil sector will be handled to provide the necessary changes.
The BP Plc is the leading oil company in the British oil company. It was founded in 1909 as an Anglo-Persian oil firm, and it evolved over the years and, therefore, acquired the name BP Plc in the year 2001. The corporation has its headquarters in London, and it usually conducts its business operations in more than eighty countries globally. The British Petroleum has ventured and successfully gained in production, power generation, exploration, refining, distribution, marketing, and petrochemicals. The employees of the British Petroleum are spread all over the world, and they stand at 84,000. Concerning the IT transformation, the company has got 4,200 employees who have mostly played a significant part and role in the transformation process.
2.1 The Cultural Web Model
The culture web according to Johnson and Scholes (1988) is a paradigm that focuses on some elements that can contribute to the organizational worldview that can cause change and transformational of the company. The model focuses on what the organizational entails, the activities it does, the mission it has set and the value that the organization has (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2015). The elements are the guideline to a distinct characteristic that can distinguish the organizational transformational. The elements of the module may overlap since the elements are set to attain the same goal. The web helps to analyze the current culture and reveals what need to be done to achieve the strategies and the plan set. Implementing of the culture web involves the remolding of values, beliefs and behaviors. It provides an excellent framework so that analysis of the current culture and the designed changes can build the foundation and provide thus creating a cultural environment to provide and enhance success. The first element can be based on the control systems. In this aspect, what is considered as important in the organization is what is given the priority. What influences the behavior and is important to monitor in the organization is what is considered as the control system. The organization provides the reward system that is easy to monitor and can be able to provide new strategies that can lead to success.
The Cultural web also provides an aspect of the organizational structure which reflects on power, roles, relationships in the form of hierarchical, mechanistic structures that might emphasize the importance of collaboration and competition. The other aspects that can be analyzed from the cultural web model involve background stories about the organization. They can include the interests of the company and the management as a whole, the Act of staff being accountable in their work and the age that the organization has. The other aspect that might be put into consideration is the power system, the symbols, and the paradigm. The aspects expound on the fragmentations between the professional bodies and the political arena.
The representation of the aspects reveals an underlying relationship between the six aspects. It shows how they are interdependent to one another. The events occur in an overlapping manner.
2.2 The Force Field Analysis Model
It is an analysis model that is used to make appropriate decisions through making an analysis of the pressure against and for the change that is advocated for. The model helps the organization to reason and communicate the fact behind the decision making. The model can be used for two purposes one of them is the ability to decide if the organization should go ahead with the change or not. The other approach entails an increase in the chances of attaining success by strengthening the forces which support the set transformation and also weakening the forces that are against the change.
Lewin Kurt created the force field analysis model in 1940s. The model was used as a social psychology which enhanced communication on whether to make decisions or not. The model works such that one list all the factors that can be driven to provide change, and then the forces that can influence the decision that is supposed to be made is also put down. The score is made based on the influence the change will have and the forces that support and strengthens changes are evaluated after which inferences are made to make the operation more successful. The question that should be brought from the model is what business benefit would the change delivery, the cost, and the risks, how hard or easy the implementation of change will bring (Levy & Merry, 1986). The entire question will be answered and well demonstrated in the field analysis model
2.3 The Change Kaleidoscope
The model was brought forth and developed by Hope Hailey & Balogun (2002). It evaluates the different ways that can be enhanced in order together and differentiate the different contextual features and implementations of the options that are usually considered when implementing change. It is often considered as a conceptualizing nature of change. It contains rings that usually enables or constrain change. Different features can be used in the kaleidoscope model to explain the need for change.
The factors include time, the scope, preservation, diversity, capability, capacity, readiness for change and power (Martin, 2005). If for example the BP oil company can consider the period of which the change can occur or the time frame. The organization should apply the model and first consider if the change needed will be long term or short term. The degree of change should describe the scope and whether the change can affect the whole organization or not. The company should analyze and find out if the change that is supposed to be applied maintained or destroy the assets of the organization. The evaluation will entail finding out whether the transformation that will be put in place in the BP oil company will be more diverse in term of values or the divisions that will be done in the organization will be relatively homogeneous. The representation of the model can be as follows.
The models will be used to understand the company's success in the application of the change that is adopting the IT function. The use of the three models will equip and prepare the organization into knowing whether the implementation of the IT in the BP Company will provide a great length of development, competition and rapidly change of the company and the business environment. The models will give a framework that will be used to identify whether the values and ethics of the company will go hand in hand with the society values. BP will face various setbacks while applying the transformational change but in the long run, the implementation of the models will assert its success.
MARTIN, J. (2005). Organizational behavior and management. London [u.a.], Thomson Learning.
LEVY, A., & MERRY, U. (1986). Organizational transformation: approaches, strategies, theories. New York, Praeger.
JOHNSON, G., SCHOLES, K., & WHITTINGTON, R. (2015). Fundamentals of strategy. Harlow; Munich [u.a.], Pearson Education.
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