Theory X, as well as Theory Y, are human work inspiration and management theories, which were developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s. The approaches are established on the notion that the administration has to organize all the production factors, such as human beings, for the task to be completed effectively. According to McGregor, organizational management can apply either of the necessities to motivate the workers, as categorized under both theory X as well as theory Y. The basic understanding is that people belonging to Theory X are generally are not ready to take up the challenge unless motivated through strict controls (Daneshfard & Rad, 2019). According to theory Y, workers are usually motivated, self-beginners, and ready to take up the challenge with little or no supervision, control, and direction.
Theory X works from the assumption that a typical worker is naturally lazy. The theory reviews the traditional view of management, whereby an autocratic leadership approach, close supervision, and the hierarchical principle are essential factors. Since employees in Theory X have no determination, are lazy, and opt to be controlled, the authoritarian approach of leadership is the more effective in theory X. Pure work inspiration comprises financial incentives. Hattangadi (2015) argue people avoid work, and this they must be continuously controlled and coerced, with an effective system of rewards and punishment which works to them. Also, their tasks and how they should conduct them must be stated out clearly and in detail. This theory works on various assumptions, which include viewing work as inherently repugnant to many employees; thus, they will try to evade it as possible. The approach also assumes that many employees lack ambition, opt to be controlled and have little sense for accountability, and are resistant to change; they gullible as well as unintelligent and have little capacity for creativeness in resolving organizational issues (Gurbuz et al., 2014).
Theory Y works on the general principle of integration; that individual can attain their goals by focusing their efforts on the organizational goals. The higher-level needs, as well as self-actualization, can best motivate employees. Under this theory, leaders assume that workers are motivated internally, love their work, and perform effectively with no direct reward. Here bosses perceive workers as the most valued organizational assets, driving the internal corporate workings (Lawter et al., 2015). Theory Y assumes that employees are naturally responsible, and the capacity for creativity spread throughout the organization; workers will practice self-direction as well as self-control if properly committed to the goals, and innovative decision making is widely spread throughout the population.
Daneshfard, K., & Rad, S. S. (2019). Philosophical analysis of theory x and y. Journal of Management and Accounting Studies, 7(02), 44-48. https://doi.org/10.24200/jmas.vol7iss02pp44-48
Gurbuz, S., Sahin, F., & Koksal, O. (2014). Revisiting of Theory X and Y. Management Decision. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-06-2013-0357
Hattangadi, V. (2015). Theory x & theory y. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects, 2(4), 20-21. Retrieved from https://www.ijrra.net/Vol2issue4/IJRRA-02-04-06.pdf
Lawter, L., Kopelman, R. E., & Prottas, D. J. (2015). McGregor's theory X/Y and job performance: A multilevel, multi-source analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues, 84-101. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44113685
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