The utilitarian approach is mainly concerned with providing the greatest good to the greatest number of people, but the deontological approach focuses on following pre-established because the formalized moral standards were approved to be efficient and ethically right. Therefore, the manager should use the deontological approach. The reason is because utilitarian asserts that the morally correct activities are the ones that have high benefits on most people. Thus, this theory fails to utilize universality as deontological does, which involves a thorough investigation before taking an action.
Kohlberg's stages of moral development look at the process of moral development from childhood to adulthood. In the first level, it argues that the toddler undergoes preconvention morality where there is no special code and the toddler follows the moral codes set by the parents. The second level involves conventional morality where the toddler starts internalizing the adult's moral standards. In level three, the individual bases his actions on his reasoning, beliefs, and understandings hence not associated with dependence.
An ethical virtue is a virtue that is acceptable to people based on moral characters and not based on formalized rules and regulations. It means that one has to make decision-based on the morality of the actions and not based on deontological rules. An ethics virtue therefore tends to eliminate formalities in its application in the society, argues against the provision of deontological rules, and accepts actions under moral bases.
Whistleblowers are individuals or entities that expose concealed transactions within the mainstream administration that have the potential of undermining the organizations reputation, objectives and mission. The role of a whistleblower are like those of a watchdog which include bringing to public attention unethical, incorrect or illegal activities within an organization. Within the US legal system, the 1989 Whistleblower Protection Act protects them from undue political influence and encourage their cooperation with the government to report cases of impropriety for necessary actions. The Act allows workers and contractors the liberty of speech on pertinent issues that have the potential of negatively affecting the operations of institutions.
GPRA is a Federal law that indicates to the Congress the progress that the Indian health services have in providing healthcare services to the Native Americans as well as the people of Alaska natives. PART and GPRMA revealed significant shortcoming with the evidence that was intended back up statements about GPRA accomplishment.
Budgeting as an Administrative Process and an evaluation process and as a planning process, all of which outlines its functions. As an administrative process, it administers the use of the available resources. While it also evaluates by determining the value of each resources identified. Finally, plans by considering what an organization would need and includes it in the document.
Uncontrollable expenditure arises from state mandates in the current law or obligations from previous laws such as entitlement. On the other hand, Discretionary spending is one that cannot be limited by the appropriations of the congress but is based on the number of approved beneficiaries or past obligations of the administration.
The Pendleton Act of the United States is necessary to ensure that employment position in the federal government is awarded to people based on competitive exams. While the civil service reforms act requires that, the employees of the government are selected through their merits on competitive exams rather than their political affiliations or the gender. The government positions should not include gender as a requirement within the qualifications.
There is a negative correlation between ethics and sexual harassment in workplaces. Ethical standards of any given work environment do not allow any kind of harassment, sexual included. The ethical frameworks of workplaces highlights the dos and donts of the workplaces. These frameworks sought to disillusions the belief of gender inequality making easier for people to interact and share ideas freely in the work environment. The ethical frameworks cubs the occurrences of sexual harassments thus upholding the standards of the workplaces.
Public employees are prohibited from striking if their strikes are unlawful. The right to strike enhances the strength of a union, which is considered as a bargaining agent. Inefficient ability to withdraw services plays an important role in weakening the position of the labor during bargaining. Additionally, the strikes of the public employees takes place whether they are illegal or not depending on the heavy penalties prescribed by the law. The right to strike also enhances the strength of the union.
Striking is prohibited because it violates sovereignty. Furthermore, the public services are important and cannot be interrupted. The traditional channel of influence also exists for the unions including voting and lobbying. Additionally, the strikes in the public sector are usually political.
Reasons are given in support of the right to strike. What conclusions can be reached? (6 points).
The conclusion that can be reached: the national labor relation act was passed. In recognition of the employees rights to carry out any activity that support their efforts in collective bargaining. Additionally, the same rights are also spelt in section 13 of national labor relations ACT that allows the employees to strike or hold peaceful demonstration in case their reason for striking is illegal such as breach of contractual agreements, mistreatments, and underemployment.
11. Identify the principal components of an affirmative action program for an organization (4). The main components include
What the organization has
What the organization should have
How it will have what it doesn't have
12. Describe, briefly, each of the three types of funds typically used in public organization accounting systems (6points)
The government funds refer to the funds acquired and used by the government or state. In most cases, it involves accounting such as acquisition, utilization of funds as well as balances the country' financial resources. These include special revenue funds, general funds, and capital projects funds
This refers to the accounts used for the activities that the government considers as running or ongoing. These funds are self-perpetuating are users are charged for the services. They include the enterprise funds with the sources of revenue and the internal service funds used to balance departmental provision for goods and services.
These are funds that are mainly used to account for any government owned asset. It may include pensions, investments funds as well as agency funds that government holds in trust.
Denhardt, Robert B, Janet V. Denhardt, and Tara A. Blanc. Public Administration: An Action Orientation. 2014. Print.
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