Research Paper on Confucius: Advocating Ethical Reform and the Golden Rule

Paper Type:  Book review
Pages:  8
Wordcount:  2066 Words
Date:  2023-04-23

Confucius proposed the ethical reform of society that involved the elimination of power-mongering and behaviors of exploitation of the people in power. . He wanted the leaders who were exploitative to be eliminated. Confucius is identified with the group known as the Ru; this was men who learned who kept the government in check. Confucius advances his concern in a range of things like "ren" that he refers to the love for all humanity. The analects present their golden rule to be "do to others what you would have them do to you." . Confucius argues that for someone to be a good teacher, then he has to be older than the learners are and must be well conversant with the past and the ancient ways and practices. He sometimes tends to be against reflection and meditation, but his position tends to be between learning and meditation on what one has learned. He argues that someone who studies and does not reason is misplaced, and one who thinks but learns nothing is in a big problem.

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This anthology contains the words of Confucius and his disciples. It is in some short passages that recount some events in the life of Confucius as well as describing him as a man. The chapter talks about Jen, which can be translated into humanity. Also, we see chunt-zu, who has this quality. Confucius proposed the society to be reformed through ethical means after the unrest of spring-autumn. He wanted the leaders who were exploitative to be eliminated. Confucius is identified with the group known as the Ru; this was men who learned who kept the government in check. However, the relationship between Ru and Confucius is not clear in these analects. Ruist Education aims to produce people who are disciplined and who have good ethics. Confucius, in the analects, pointed clearly that he is not the creator but a transmitter. The analects show Confucius as a person who is committed and a serious thinker. Leaders in the government, as well as his disciples, are on record consulting him on several issues. Many passages clearly show how Confucius takes into account a lot of factors before deciding anything. The fact that Confucius, who is said to be the founder of the analects, can be involved in some vices like lying and nepotism surprises people.

It will be difficult for us today to understand what Confucius said to Duke concerning running a state if we comprehend his comments as normative prescriptions. We should not expect prescriptive answers from the analects on our ethical dilemmas. We should just read them so we can understand them better, just like Confucius did. As we read them, we should also try to find the foundation of the analects. The foundation of the analects is just on the humanness, and this is what is encouraged in the Confucian tradition. Only in the texts, pre-dating Confucius is where Ren is mentioned and not all the time. However, if we look Ren as a general concern for humanity, you will realize that it simply implies loving all humanity. However, it is only the man of the Ren who knows how to like and dislike others. On the other hand, when we look at Ren as the golden rule of Confucius, we realize that it takes people who are morally aware as their first people. The most important thing to note is that the Ren Confucius pictures together with the li are included in the program of self-cultivation, via which one will be an exemplary person.

Readers will wonder if culture engenders harmony and provides stability. To understand this, one has to think about shared holidays, family dinners, funerals, weddings, and birthdays. These are the events and activities that families share. Societies share as well. Therefore, they bring harmony in society; they shape and structure our lives. Confucius called this sharing li, which simply means ceremony, ritual, proper behavior, or sacrifice, depending on the context in which it is used. Things like etiquette, handshakes bowing, and words lie to thank you, I am sorry and such like words are what Confucius says in this book that they bring harmony in the society. According to Confucius, the ceremonies are crucial in the lives of people of the nation because it provides the meaning of events like baptisms, weddings, and so on. So many aspects that are found in different cultures help us to appreciate so many things in our lives today, things like televisions internet songs and so many others. The diverse cultures, according to the philosopher, are very crucial as they play a very important in ensuring that people interact and get entertained.

In the same manner that we can encourage our kids to read poetry books build to build their morals. Confucius also, in his opinion, the key goal of creating education was to nature a moral person. In this book, he has placed a lot of emphasis on education, culture, li. Duke of Zhou was the founder of cultural forms, and in this book and Confucius has shown a lot of nostalgia. The definition of culture that Duke provides is based on inquiry and the love of learning. The necessity of having an emotional connection to learning is shown in this book by Confucius. He points out that having just an interest in education is not enough; he argues that good learning should be a joyful process. He continues to argue that, through learning, one can achieve many things, like building a moral culture. Unlike today where we look up for law for us to have law and order, during the time of Confucius, he felt like people were supposed to do the right thing because they were supposed to, not because they had to. He preferred the li culture more than the law, and this is what can provide the society with an opportunity to behave well and learn the right behaviors. According to Confucius, li makes people behave well, have etiquette in society, and above all, it ensures that there is an order in the administrations.

Society expects that a philosophy that champions hierarchy will also favor the idea of getting power and preserving it. According to Confucius, regardless of the position of one in the hierarchy of governing the society deference as well as humility are essential. He argues that hierarchies are not static but dynamic. He gives an analogy of a small girl in a family who gets up through the hierarchy of a family until he comes to a woman who has a family, mother, and aunt, and finally, she becomes a matriarch. Confucius says, in the same manner, a commoner in the society will also make his or her way up the hierarchy of the society until he or she finally becomes a top official in the government looking after other citizens. Today this is looked at as social agility. However, social mobility relies on a key political idea, meritocracy that is ruling by the able. This idea is based on giving the best person the job to do because he or she will do it best. In as much as this idea is common in our society today, it has taken quite a long time to stick to our customs.

Confucius has been supporting the idea of meritocracy, especially among men. He promoted this by educating all men who came to him, and at the same time, he gave them chances of taking big roles and responsibilities in society. An opportunity that they could not have secured with other cultures. The idea of educating the next generation leaders was instilled in China institutions later. This was after Europe boosted the institutions of China to get into the process of civil service. Therefore, at no cost should people or leaders in the society or even scholars dismiss Confucius's emphasis on hierarchy. The idea of hierarchy is around us whether we welcome it or not. In this idea, Confucius bases his argument on the fact that one may have more skills in driving, playing guitar, have more knowledge in politics than the other person. This implies that the other person is high in the hierarchy of ability, and therefore, he or she can teach the other person who has no idea. According to Confucius, these hierarchical relationships exist between people in different societies. Getting rid of, it then people ought to behave in some unique manner. Those who are top in the hierarchy should treat the lower people with care and love of good mentors.

Most of the time, people consider the philosophy of Confucius to be ethical or political. This is true to some degree because he favors some virtues that are inclined to the government that is based on the family structure. However, is philosophy also touches on education; he also advocates for efforts of creating moral leaders who are competent, intelligent, and sympathetic. Leaders who can make their subjects have confidence in them and approach them in times of problems in their societies. According to Confucius, if a leader leads with virtue, people will follow him or her without fear and with joy. His philosophy has made him be celebrated today in the Republic of China as the first teacher. In the analects of Confucius all, the episodes have something to do with education, getting along with others, culture, leadership. He teaches on how leaders can build a harmonious society, using diverse ideas to achieve one common goal, which will benefit the entire wisdom.

The Tao that Confucius is talking about in this book is just a road. If we can put this in the context of work, it refers to how any task can be done in society. Confucius has talked on several occasions in this book about this way that is under heaven, and this refers to an excellent way to achieve nice things. These ways, he is referring to this in this book, includes a manner in which the Kingdom should be ruled or even self-conduct in society. Another main idea that Confucius is talking about in this book is ritual. Even if he does not provide the details of the rituals in this work, but he brings out the ritual as a critical idea in the way. In this book, you realize that the moral initiatives outweigh pure historical knowledge. In other words, according to Confucius, practicing good things and having good manners are the key traits that define a good person in society. He points out in this book that a good attitude was also crucial for one who wanted to be a top leader in the nation. Someone who wanted to be a good leader was supposed to respect elders and the cultural norms that have been passed from generation to generation.

The work contains every event that surrounded his struggle while spreading his doctrine. Something that dismayed Confucius so much is the changing of the normal structure and functioning of the administration. This made him seek a revival of the Chou traditions, which were a norm in Lu sometimes back. According to him, this was the way of making society a better place to be. Finally, Confucius and his disciples looked for an audience, which had various leaders from Lu, who were to help in bringing back the traditions. Even if his plans failed, he left Lu after getting convinced that the kind of leaders he wanted was not in the congregation. Therefore, he went out scouting for the leaders he wanted in the neighboring states. These times he was walking, looking for the leaders with the qualities he wanted are captured in this book. Later Confucius returned to Lu after receiving an invitation from Jan Ch'iu, and in the days he spent in Lu after returning, he used to teach young men about the traditions of Chou. Despite taking a lot of his time teaching the young men, he never succeeded in setting up a state based on his teachings.

Confucius value so much his form of education, because of that he ridiculed those who were believed in innate understanding, he says that their knowledge is obtained from the long and keen study. According to him, studying is getting information from a good teacher and imitating his or her actions. Confucius argues that for someone to be a good teacher, then he has to...

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