Identify Volpp's Thesis
At the time of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack it is believed that there an array of incidences that happened prior to the occurrence. Some of which, Volpp points out to be hate speech and violence that was facilitated by political climate. Volpp states that the September 11 helped in the formation and consolidation of the new identification category that alienates the people that have Middle Eastern, and Arabic appearances or are Muslim. This segregation of these groups of people showcases a racialization that associates them with or are considered terrorists with the tag of disidentified citizens.
Describe Her Three Examples
The stereotyping of people of Middle Eastern and Arab origin by a number of people had in some way contributed to the events of September 11. Volpp goes ahead to explain in detail the different dimensions that came as a result of racialization with examples.
First is the racial profiling. Before the terrorist attack of September 11, the public vehemently opposed racial profiling condemning the practice with reasons of inefficiency, unfairness and ineffectiveness. After the terrorist attack people views changed and sort out after racial profiling as a good thing with the support of it being necessary for the survival and safety of the American people. Racial profiling has been practiced through the sweeping into detention of persons who appear as the described characteristics that is Middle Eastern, Arabic or Muslim. Next act was, the engagement by the department of justice to investigatory interviews of more than five thousand males seeking entry into the USA on student, business or tourist visas.
With focus on those from the middle east and Islamic states as well as countries with suspected links with Al Qaeda. Deportation was another used under the racial profiling on those who received final orders to return to their countries but seem to not to heed the orders. Another form was seen at airports, and airlines whereby other passengers denied Middle Eastern passengers on board the right to travel thus resulting to being kicked off the plane. Lastly, members of the public have taken action into their own through engaging in extralegal activities pertaining racial profiling, by acts of violence against individuals through attacks on businesses and homes. Volpp explains that this type of mindset and attitude towards persons of Middle East and Arabic origin needs to change among the publics, because anybody can harbor ill motives and even become terror suspects. For instance the case of Timothy McVeigh, the Oklahoma bombing would not have taken place had every person been search and scrutinized, McVeigh had a free pass by the fact that he was a white thus was not suspicious.
Secondly, Volpp explains the acts of redeploying orientalist tropes. In the yesteryears, the United States of America used the Middle East and Asia regions to portray the issues of internal and external threats in reference to the U.S peace. Edward explains why on many different occasions the European civilization has been the basis on which orientalization has taken shape and objectification of both east and west. Through the already set ideology of the west being modern, progressive whose citizens enjoy democracy, the east is on the other hand is viewed as backward with primitive and barbaric characters. The September 11 occurrence sealed the fate of the regions associated with east, thus associating them with the terror attack.
Third, citizenship and identity is what the Americans hold dear. Volpp explains the interrelationship between racial profiling and citizenship and identity. Racial profiling came as a result of some of the people being viewed as outsiders and do not fit into the system, in many cases those facing racial segregation may actually be full citizens of America through birth or naturalization. Although their identity is not recognized because of their appearance. Volpp outlines the elements appertaining citizenship, she states four aspects, formal legal status, political activity, rights and identity. Citizens perceive citizenship as a form of inclusion into a society thus gives one an identity through membership.
Analyze and Discuss the Thesis In Relation to Your Own Experiences Post 9/11
In one way or the other Volpp's thesis on the issues of the racialization of persons of with relations to Middle East, Islamic or Muslim have been the target of terror attacks. Most of the suspects have been linked to Islamic states, thus posing a threat and a challenge for any other person from the region to be exempted from racial segregations all over the United States of America. After the September 11, occurrence the government has been on high alert about people from countries linked to or are travelling from the east. Following the orientalist tropes mindset, whereby the east was and is still viewed as backward, is a clear indication of how the west view the east and Asia up to now. These ideologies are supported by how citizens and persons originating from those regions are handled. The disidentification of citizens especially those with Middle Eastern, Islamic and Muslim appearances indicates the lack of trust from the government.
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Racialization of Persons Related to Middle East after 9/11 by Volpp. (2021, Mar 29). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/racialization-of-persons-related-to-middle-east-after-9-11-by-volpp
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