The paper aims at assessing the relationship between team performance and the groupthink. First, the paper will analyze all the main effect of groupthink in a specific organization. The main focus will be on how groupthink is formed in an organization and how it can be manifested in work performance in an organization, especially concerning group discussion. The second part will critically evaluate if groupthink organizational group performance. This will be done by analyzing all the existing theories by Irving l. Janis and all the empirical studies that have been conducted to give an examination on the effect of groupthink on group performance link. The last part of the will shows the recommendations which would reduce all the negative impact of groupthink in a specific group performance in a workplace. I will also give application support to the idea about groupthink in the light of theory.
In the past few years, there has been increased emphasis on behavior literature of an organization When focusing on a group critical decision making. Group decision making and organization conducting of various tasks and be given accreditation when it comes to improvement of productivity and even the enhancement of the work quality. (Christensen, S. S. 2018) However, many researchers also have done the review on the potential problem that can occur within a group and that can bring hindrance to any group effectiveness form its performance. This illness can be considered as groupthink which was first presented in 1972 by Irving L. Janis. The main point of Janis theory suggests that the all the is that the unfortunate decision of the group that suffers group thinking comes from the tendency to seek a substantial agreement that suppresses the process of collective decision making and leads to failure. (Schruijer, S. 2018) From Janis achievement there has been the different body that conducted research It demonstrates the phenomenon of the physiological phenomena of the psychology of group thinking, as well as the design of several simple strategies to avoid it.
A review of Groupthink
According to Irving, group thinking can be considered as the mode of thinking in which people are engaged in especially when they are involved in a group cohesive if the experts try to deal with their motivation to realistically evaluate alternative actions. Based on this particular theory it has been suspected that groupthink only takes place when the group members unanimity motivation and Consent, like consensus, exceeds its motivation to evaluate the beneficial benefits of the decisions and expressions of wrong people or minorities. (Hollnagel, E. 2017) There have been studies which have proven that cohesiveness can be developed from a group or a team which tends to result in good performance. However, when you consider the disadvantage of the highly cohesive type of group It is the ability to make their decisions drastically limited by the Janis group hypothesis. The powerful cohesive group where all the members of the group are respectful and friendly and show respect to other member's opinions can result in the decision being faulty. The overall policy of the group is immersed in the inferior decision-making process. With the same opinion, in other words, (Hollnagel, E. 2017), argue that highly cohesive groups can create a compatibility pressure that reduces reflexivity, which hinders the judgment of its members and their ability to achieve the correct results. From this point of view, it is clear that all members of the group feel comfortable to agree, following the positive side of the group, instead of being an opponent, although this factor has the potential to improve the efficiency of group decisions. This reveals to the reality that individuals with different views of the dominant majority tend to restrict or alter their true feelings and beliefs, which leads to deviating the decision-making process.
According to Janis, it is believed that groupthink has a disadvantage when it comes to learning any activity that can prevent further development was considerably stagnated by consensus that was mostly based upon delays concerning critical opinions useful for evaluating different options and alternative information. Hence when a group is attacked the main problems are examined and discussed in a certain way leaving many undefined solutions. One of the most obvious examples of a group that could be considered as an explosion of the NASA Space Shuttle Challenger, only after 73 seconds it was launched in January of 1986, killed seven space astronauts. This disaster may be easily prevented if the NASA team noticed the engineer's concerns about the readiness and safety of the Shuttle structure before it was launched.
Research involving symptoms of Groupthink
Groupthink is regarded as a threat to the organization as the most state in their viewpoint. Janis in his theory describes in eight symptoms putting together three types of characteristics experienced from the known fiascos and greatly become a powerful asset in identifying the groupthink existences. They comprise of; group overestimation which can be stated as invulnerability illusion incorporating morality inherent in beliefs, close-mindedness is another element of attributes Janis described, it elaborates rationalization collectivity and stereotype image expressed when out of the group, lastly uniformity pressure including safeguarding mind and dissenters' direct pressure. (Barash, D. P. 2017) According to Janis, this kind of symptoms is concurrently considered as collections seeking probability that can affect group decision-making process, especially in context if it's fading away and leading to fiascos and even much worst disasters. In Janis Research looking for concurrencies outplays important role in accumulative decision-making procedures, if it occurs too early it will become excessive especially in limited availability access. Pressure, as directed toward similarities and uniformity, is pointed out to signal possible concurrence-seeking occurring from the perspective of misguiding policy comparing with the other two theoretical aspects. It is clear that it not all the time the symptoms of groupthink associates with one another. In their study there is a positive association in pressure towards dissenter, rationalized collection and self-censor aspect on point of view to each other, on contrary, there is an element of negativity considering beliefs in invulnerability, organization intrinsic morality, and unanimity illusion. From their point of the study, they gave a suggestion that decision making done collectively in respect to groupthink symptoms provides two different processes. (Barash, D. P. 2017) A positive relationship between the illusion of invulnerability and unanimity with the morality of the group, in contrast to the emergence of mind guards, self-censorship, pressure on the maverick, and the pattern of outgroups. Examined the groupthink syndrome according to the Janis group and concluded that symptomatic syndromes tend to create negative associations in the fractured process. Differently, this is a strengthening of the symptoms of groupthink are associated with defective decision-making processes that are highly qualified.
How to avoid Groupthink
It is evident that groupthink is an unnoticeable barrier that results in negativity on group decision-making process and can occasionally lead to irreversible consequences. However, Janis's phenomenal discovery on groupthink theory has given ways to scholars and researchers in devices ways and methods to avoid this from happening when conducting groupthink. Researchers point out that it is necessary for executives in promoting groupthink consistency incorporating with a perfect sense of professional means of solidarity. (Whyte, G. 2015) In a particularly same instance, it is vital to procreate a fair-free area where every individual member of the group should be encouraged to participate in the exchange of ideas and to evaluate options. In addition, attention should be paid to relevant external information, such as providing a variety of information and expanding the scope of interoperability.
In conclusion, many studies have investigated the negative impact of groupthink on the organization, focusing on group decisions. All of them have been carefully reviewed and examined by the Janis Group hypothesis, which claims that the groupthink is clearly an enemy of creativity, bringing significant threats and mistakes. Cognitive behavior may be involved in the decision making of the control group. But it is only needed. But very necessary If people can do that, the concept of groupthink can be used effectively to analyze defective decision-making processes and offer advice to avoid groupthink in organizations that work. It is, therefore, necessary to further research on the potential threats to effective group decision making by groupthink to better understand this phenomenon, as well as to improve ideas and research. Continuous in-depth for the group.
Barash, D. P. (2017). Approaches to peace (Vol. 199). Oxford University Press.
Christensen, S. S. (2018). Escape from the diffusion of responsibility: A review and guide for nurses. Journal of nursing management.
Hollnagel, E. (2017). Resilience: the challenge of the unstable. In Resilience engineering (pp. 21-30). CRC Press.
Schruijer, S. (2018). The Role of Collusive Dynamics in the Occurrence of Organizational Crime: A Psychoanalytically Informed Social Psychological Perspective. Administrative Sciences, 8(3), 24.
Whyte, G. (2015). Groupthink. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-2.
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