Power and social status is the main reason to why people engage in deviant behavior in America, the American dream concept pushes people towards deviance. The society's description of success may push people towards deviance. The society defines power and social status as being able to drive an expensive car, owning a very good house or condo and having a multi-million worth idea or business. The society sets high goals and definitions for success. However, this people work on low wages and salaries. Durkheim's describes this as the concept of anomie while Merton calls it strain to anomie. Therefore, it is true power and social status encourages deviance.
The phrase white-collar crimes refers to that class of crime which is committed by businessmen or any official on a high social status for which the ultimate motivation is financial gains.
Describe trends in white-collar crimes
According to the FBI report (2011) crimes have white-collar crimes have been on the rise on the yearly basis. In 2002, FBI had 291 corporate Fraud Pending cases, in 2003, they had 279, 2004 they had 332, in 2005; they have 490. In 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009 and 2010; they had 529; 545; 592, 661 and 726 respectively indicating that the number of corporate Fraud cases were on the rise each year. This was also evidenced in the indictment and convictions of corporate criminal, which the numbers were on rise in 2005, FBI convicted 317, corporate criminals and indicted 497, in 2006 FBI indicted 171 criminals and convicted 124, which was a decline but from 2008, the number of convictions and indictments were on a constant rise. On the FBI pending investigations on mortgage fraud, the number has been on the rise in 2005 FBI had 721;2006 it was 881; 2007 it was 1204; 2009 had 2794 and 2010 had 3129. Each year registered an increase in mortgage fraud cases. Similar trends were in health care fraud cases. Therefore, it is better to conclude that white-collar crime is on increase and this is on yearly basis.
1991 and 2011, forms of white-collar crime increased.
Factor contributing to white-collar crimes
Competency 4: Deviance as a social construct that changes over time
Public perceptions of a white-collar crime as deviance
Competency 5: Methods of social control used to punish deviance
Challenges of gathering data on deviance
Failure to report white-collar crimes many people fail to report white-collar crime because they are unaware that they have been victimized.
Many of those who are aware of a suspicious incident are unsure of whether or not it is an actual crime, those who are knowledgeable, many are either unsure who to contact or believe no resolution will come from reporting the crime.
NW3C encourages awareness on the part of both the public and law enforcement agencies as a preventive measure against the future of white-collar crime.
Advancement in technology
Explain how deviance is a social construct that changes over time
It is true deviance is a social construct that changes over time. The society is in charge of determining what is deviant and what is not. Deviance is a social construct because people from different societies may view a concept as deviance or non-deviant depend ending on the acceptability of that behavior in that society. For instance, in some countries the tendering process is supposed to be free and fair. However, some companies set aside some funds to influence acquisition of such tenders in the name of facilitation fees, which in essence is bribery in some nations. With facilitation fees, the society is less judgmental, while it is very harsh when it comes to bribery when in real sense it is actually the same thing. This shows the power of the society in determining whether something is deviance or not. Thus, it all depends on what a society perceives to be deviant for it to be deviant. Moreover, within the same society, different generations can have different perceptions about certain matters for instance what the aged could perceive as deviance the young cannot. A classic example is homosexualism, which the society one viewed as a sin and deviant behavior today, gayism and lesbianism is a right and something that one needs to appreciate. Therefore, it is appropriate to conclude that deviance is a social construct, which changes over time.
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