Effects of Both Political and Economic Changes on Women and Ethnic Minorities

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1907 Words
Date:  2022-05-17


By size, the United States is the second largest democratic within the globe. India is the first while Indonesia is the third in the order. In addition to being the third in democracy, U.S. is the most powerful nation as well considering its economy, political inclination, and military (Galbraith, 2017). However, its political system is in many respects unlike other countries in the world. The United States construction is deemed the longest-lasting across the globe as well as being one of the shortest in the world . Nonetheless, despite its shortest, it is the most stable as it anchors all that pertains to humanity.

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The US government is divided into three branches: the executive that is comprised by the president and the cabinet, the legislature which is the US Congress, and the judiciary which is made up of the US courts of law. The separation of the powers is done so that there is a system of checks and balances to prevent each group from gaining much control. The main function of the US Congress, therefore, is to decide and make laws which are the governing rules of America, in addition to making laws (Galbraith, 2017). The congress is tasked with the impeachment of the president in case they deem the president has acted out of the law. The composition of the Congress is the upper chamber whi9ch is the Senate, and the lower chamber called the House of Representatives.

The president is elected on a universal suffrage basis. The popular votes which are the "voice" of the citizens are cast, but the Electoral College has the last say on who becomes the president. When elected and inaugurated, the president has the power to veto laws passed by the Congress and at the same time nominate the cabinets which the approval of the Senate. The US courts are made up of the Supreme Court and the federal courts (Galbraith, 2017). The Supreme Court has nine judges who are appointed by the president and the Senate approving. The jury at the Supreme Court listens and decide presidential petition cases and can decide to uphold an election or overturn the presidential election when an election is proved to be fraudulent.

The economic system of US

The economic system refers to the institutions and laws of a nation which determine the owners of economic resources, how the citizens buy and sell as well, as for how production processes make use of the available resources. The US economic system, therefore, is made up of "a market system" since it is controlled by the market (Hallin & Mancini, 2011). A market is an institution where consumer and producers come together to exchange goods and services. This interaction of buyers and consumers is mainly the drive behind the prices in the AS, unlike other countries where the government set up the price for certain goods and services. However, the economy is also considered to be a mixed system. This is because of the involvement of the government in the guidance and regulation of the economy. Some services are still provided by the government instead of private business. These include education, postal systems, court systems, roads, among others.

The market economy within the US, for the most part, involves a lot of interaction between the consumers and the producers. The consumers often determine the kind of goods and services to be produced and their prices (Hallin & Mancini, 2011). There is also a guiding principle which dates back that individuals own the goods they make and decide to purchase for consumption. The private companies and businesses at the same time control some factors which involve production.

Effects of both Political and Economic Changes on Women and Ethnic Minorities

In the first place, ethnic minorities are a group of disadvantaged people who fled homelands for the hope of better life or due to fear of persecutions. Ideally, these groups have always found themselves on the lower levels of the societies faced with low socio-economic status and educational levels. In the initial stages of the upsurge of US economy, several laws barred the incorporation of minorities into both political and economic systems of the country (Hallin & Mancini, 2011). These laws created tensions which were on and off for many years. It was a common practice that the ruling class both in the political arena and economy were drawn from the elite stratum within the US societies. Of great concern was the representation of women.

Over a decade, there have been tremendous changes in the structure of the political and economic system of the US which have become inclusive. For instance, the manifestation of women in the economic platform stepped up with personalities such as Oprah Winfrey taking the US economy by the storm (Hallin & Mancini, 2011). Politically, minorities have had a chance to be represented stemming out the notion that the ruling class was only drawn from the elite class

Saudi Arabia Political System

Saudi Arabia is an Asian country which is located in West Asia. The Saudi Arabian politics takes place in the context of an absolute totalitarian monarchy which is punctuated with Islam lines. The king in this context is both the head of the government and the head of state. The national and internal decisions are typically made in consultation with the senior princes who belong to the royal family and the religious establishment (Sundquist, 2011). The constitution of the country is wholly believed to be the Quran, and the country is governed by the law (Shari'a). Thus the Sharia becomes the primary source of legislation.

With regards to having a penal code, Saudi Arabia operates using the Commission of Virtue of and prevention of vice. This is a semiautonomous agency which has` the authority to help in monitoring people's social behavior as well as enforcing morality as a subject to the law in coordination with the law enforcement authorities. The country's political system is far different from that of many countries including the US Sundquist, 2011). It is based on hierarchies with complete monarchical which was developed on the system that believed Islam is the true religion.

Economic System of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia's economy is mainly a capitalist or market economy which is comprised of the monarchical system. Ideally, the court is boastful of a mixed economy based on oil reserves that allow the country to import most of the goods they do not produce. The Saudi king technically makes the decisions on how to use the oil proceeds to enrich the kingdom. Predominantly, the country's economy depends on oil as the main export (Joseph, 2014). Overly, the government lets free market forces n to determine prices as well as the allocation of labor. The government only interfere a little with labor based on saudization policies on labor as they deal with expatriate. Currently, the country is encouraging the growth of different private sectors to boost diversification of the economy as well as employing many Saudi nationals.

Effects of both Political and Economic Change on Ethnic Groups and Women

Research indicates that over six million foreign people are employed in Saudi Arabia especially in the oil and other service sectors. The Saudi laws do not provide for the freedom of association (Joseph, 2014). The government, therefore, is liable to limit this right by prohibiting the formation of political parties which can oppose or challenge the regime on power. On main occasions, there has been an implement of foreign travel restrictions including women and the members of minority groups in the country. In the case of women, minors (men younger than 21), and other groups are supposed to have a male guardian consent to facilitate outside the country travel. Notably, in 2015, King Abdallah passed on. He was the only king with reformation vision of making Saudi women to run for the country's top posts such as "Soura" council, as well as entering the workforce. Unfortunately, immediately after his death, the reforms were scampered with and blocked.

The Political System of Nigeria

Typically referred to the giant of Africa, Nigeria is the largest both in population and economy. Approximately, its population is hitting 186 million inhabitants. Within the last few decades, the political system of Nigeria has transformed tremendously coming from an era dominated by military coups which destabilized the country's economy (Joseph, 2014). Nonetheless, based on historical background, Nigeria has been one of the countries with vast resources and different tribesmen which later culminated in the formation of various kingdoms. The kingdom ship was later changed, and today the country is governed by presidential system elected by the people after years.

Nigeria is made up of a federal system of governance with a presidential system. As such, there is a constitution which is a "living" document that provides for separation of powers between the three arms of government. The current Nigerian constitution is the fourth since the country's independence (Joseph, 2014). It came into effect in 1999giving clear distinction of the powers vested in the executive, legislature, and the judiciary. The constitution permits personal freedom and the secular state where Muslims are allowed to follow the sharia or Islamic laws.

The executive powers lie with the president who is the head of the government and the chief of state. The president is elected by popular votes and constitutionally eligible for two-four year term in office. He appoints the cabinet which is constituted of representatives from the 36 state. The national assembly constitutes of 109 members and the Senate which a 360-member house is being the legislative branch. The country's judicial system is based on a combination of statutory laws (Woolcock & Narayan, 2000). These are the English common law, Islamic law, and the customary law. The federal and state courts apply these laws especially the English common law in which the local courts recognize the legitimacy of both Islam and customary laws.

Economic Systems of Nigeria

Nigeria is one of the middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market among African countries. It has a rapidly expanding financial, manufacturing, service, technology, and entertainment sectors that are robust. Its muscles regarding manufacturing are immense as it a producer that channels out a large proportion of goods and services for the western countries. The model in which the Nigerian economy operates on is the mixed economy where the government is controlling several key sectors of the economy and the private sectors runs the other part of the economy (Woolcock & Narayan, 2000). The government has taken the initiative to vest in almost every sector spanning from the petroleum reserves to communication through to infrastructure among others. The Nigerian economy, however, oscillates around oil, but sectors have not been left out.

Political and Economic Change and Their Impact on Ethnic Groups and Women

Nigerian society is still antiquated with anti-humanist beliefs; these beliefs portray women to be a weaker group who are relegated to the inferior positions with no regard to their natural capacity (Woolcock & Narayan, 2000). For instance, up to now, no woman has e come out to contest for the top elective post within the country ever since. In the Nigerian community today, the power relations between women and men still undermines women's role in the political arena. The consideration of being elite has remained too low in the society. The women's diplomatic, socioeconomic values as per the cultural dictates continually perpetuate the gender roles. Being a multi-ethnic nation, there have been cultural dissimilarities which have often resulted in political instability and crises.


Galbraith, J. (2017). American capitalism: The con...

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Effects of Both Political and Economic Changes on Women and Ethnic Minorities. (2022, May 17). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/effects-of-both-political-and-economic-changes-on-women-and-ethnic-minorities

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