Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1535 Words
Date:  2022-11-06

Chronic venous disease (CVD) affects millions of people globally with a prevalence of about 70%. The Chronic venous disease pathophysiology involves genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factorsADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1016/j.suc.2017.11.002","ISSN":"00396109","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Raffetto","given":"Joseph D.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Surgical Clinics of North America","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"2","issued":{"date-parts":[["2018","4"]]},"page":"337-347","title":"Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Disease and Venous Ulcers","type":"article-journal","volume":"98"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1db5c6ac-356b-4bc5-b7c2-b78bb38d97da"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Joseph D. Raffetto, 2018)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Joseph D. Raffetto, 2018)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Joseph D. Raffetto, 2018)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}(Joseph D. Raffetto, 2018). The patients Chronic venous have extremity symptoms of pain, dermal irritation, skin changes as well as developed risks of debilitating venous ulcers. The symptoms of CVD and clinical signs include inflammation, venous hypertension, and inflammatory pathways. From the biochemical and various studies on thevein wall as well as vein valve are pathologically altered hence causing the chronic venous disease. Therefore, the microcirculation perturbation has been found to be the significant in the pathophysiology of CVD hence endothelium regulates the vascular tone for the infection of immune disease, as well as smoking, are the adverse effects of endothelium. Results of microcirculation are due to the altered shear stress which causes the endothelial cells with the release of expresses selectins and inflammatory molecules.

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The deep venous thrombosis (DVT) affects a lot of patients globally hence disrupting vascular integrity. The impacts of DVT including the damage of the vessel wall and the hypercoagulability favors the clot formation upsetting the balance of the opposed coagulate system. The signs of DVT are affected by the obstruction to venous flow and pulmonary embolization. Since the physicians are not able to rely on the symptoms and signs of DVT for diagnosis, they have to focus on the original studies for treatment. Therefore, the patients with DVT requires an invasive test with proven value with the procedure for diagnosing DVT including the impedance plethysmography and computed tomography.

The increased body evidence links the venous and arterial thrombosis with various risk factors including age and obesity as well asmetabolic syndrome. The venous and arterial thrombosis conditions focus on the malignancies, infections and hormonal imbalance. As a result, patients suffering from venous thrombosis various risks of arterial thrombosis as compared to the matched control symptoms of venous and arterial thrombosisADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"ISSN":"1827-1839","PMID":"24755829","abstract":"Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a debilitating condition with a prevalence between 60-70%. The disease pathophysiology is complex and involves genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with individuals developing visible telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Patient with significant lower extremity symptoms have pain, dermal irritation, swelling, skin changes, and are at risk of developing debilitating venous ulceration. The signature of CVD is an increase in venous pressure referred to as venous hypertension. The various symptoms presenting in CVD and the clinical signs that are observed indicate that there is inflammation, secondary to venous hypertension, and it leads to a number of inflammatory pathways that become activated. The endothelium and glycocalyx via specialized receptors are critical at sensing changes in shear stress, and expression of adhesion molecules allows the activation of leukocytes leading to endothelial attachment, diapedisis, and transmigration into the venous wall/valves resulting in venous wall injury and inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues. There is a complex of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and proteinases, produced by activated leukocytes, that are expressed and unbalanced resulting in an environment of persistent inflammation with the clinical changes that are commonly seen, consisting of varicose veins to more advanced presentations of skin changes and venous ulceration. The structural integrity of protein and the extracellular matrix is altered, enhancing the progressive events of CVD. Work focusing on metabolic changes, miRNA regulation, inflammatory modulation and the glycocalyx will further our knowledge in the pathophysiology of CVD, and provide answers critical to treatment and prevention.","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Raffetto","given":"J D","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Mannello","given":"F","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"3","issued":{"date-parts":[["2014","6"]]},"page":"212-21","title":"Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.","type":"article-journal","volume":"33"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=0e76ec11-ccea-4460-8bfe-526b21b80e87"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(J D Raffetto & Mannello, 2014)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(J D Raffetto & Mannello, 2014)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(J D Raffetto & Mannello, 2014)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}(J D Raffetto & Mannello, 2014). Therefore, the complications of DVT and arterial thrombosis are triggered by the biological stimuli which activate the coagulation and inflammatory pathway for the venous and arterial systems.

Venous and arterial thrombotic diseases are found to have different pathophysiological characteristics resulting in anatomical disorders with various clinical distinct presentations. Arterial thrombosis focuses on the activation of platelets while venous thrombosis is focused on the clotting matter activation. Therefore, thearterial embolismprevention relates to the arterial fibrillation while the prevention of venous thrombosis leads to the coronary artery diseases treatment. Since platelets have the inevitable characteristics, they play a distinct role in the formation of venous system thrombosis hence ensuring the effective prevention of the venous thromboembolic disorders.

The difference between venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis focuses on the risk factor for atherosclerosis in the patients hence revealing the high prevalence of coronary artery and the assessed chest tomography test. Factors associated with the increased venous and arterial thrombosis include obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus. High-density cholesterol levels are observed venous and arterial thrombosis characteristic of the patient. Although the differences between the venous and arterial thrombosis are not clarified, atherosclerosis promotes the thrombotic disorder development in the nervous system. As a result, atherosclerosis leads to detectable activation of the platelets as well as blood coagulation which increases the fibrin turnover hence leading to thrombotic complication. The prothrombotic state favors the venous thrombotic events hence the assumption of the activated platelets with the slow flowing venous systemADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"ISSN":"1179-1349","PMID":"20865079","abstract":"An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals. We, therefore, speculate the two vascular complications are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent, and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice.","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Prandoni","given":"Paolo","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Clinical epidemiology","id":"ITEM-1","issued":{"date-parts":[["2009","8","9"]]},"page":"1-6","title":"Venous and arterial thrombosis: Two aspects of the same disease?","type":"article-journal","volume":"1"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=07ac4974-a22e-4762-b843-e86891b8bc2a"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Prandoni, 2009)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Prandoni, 2009)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Prandoni, 2009)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}(Prandoni, 2009). As a result, the clinical conditions ensure a shared mechanism for the risks factors hence accounting for the arterial and venous thrombosis disorders with antiphospholipid antibodies as well as malignancies and infectious states.

The leg ulcers as a patient factor impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. With the developed risk factors including age and obesity, there is the frequent occurrence of CVI and DVT especially in women with pregnancy. For a better understanding of the CVI and DVT, distinction between deep venous system and the chronic venous system should be clarified based on several mechanisms that address the valve incompetence, inflammation, and hemodynamic factors. As a result, the changes in the shear stress will be assessed with the evidence that it promotes the anti-inflammatory effects that give rise to the inflammatory mediators hence damaging the endothelial. As a result, patients with frequent CVI and DVT complain of heavy legs as well as nocturnal leg cramps that reflect the initial stages of CVI and DTV which is a cosmetic problem for patients.

The diagnosis of DTV and CVI is based on historical and clinical presentation. Through Doppler and duplex ultrasound, a pencil probe is used which examines the leg veins as well as the venous blood flow. The diagnosis accuracy is based on the deep venous system and the chronic venous systems with the anatomical variations used for assessing the arterial blood supply. As a result, the ultrasound test provides the noninvasive functional assessment from the thrombosis events hence the high degree of diagnosis for compressing veinsADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1111/ddg.13242","ISSN":"16100379","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Santler","given":"Bettina","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Goerge","given":"Tobias","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"5","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017","5"]]},"page":"538-556","title":"Chronic venous insuffici...

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